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Python's PyPI Reveals Its Secrets

Python's PyPI Reveals Its Secrets

Apr 11, 2024 Software Security / Programming
GitGuardian is famous for its annual  State of Secrets Sprawl  report. In their 2023 report, they found over 10 million exposed passwords, API keys, and other credentials exposed in public GitHub commits. The takeaways in their 2024 report did not just highlight 12.8 million  new  exposed secrets in GitHub, but a number in the popular Python package repository  PyPI . PyPI, short for the Python Package Index, hosts over 20 terabytes of files that are freely available for use in Python projects. If you've ever typed pip install [name of package], it likely pulled that package from PyPI. A lot of people use it too. Whether it's GitHub, PyPI, or others, the report states, "open-source packages make up an estimated 90% of the code run in production today. "  It's easy to see why that is when these packages help developers avoid the reinvention of millions of wheels every day. In the 2024 report, GitGuardian reported finding over 11,000 exposed  unique  secrets, wit
Critical 'BatBadBut' Rust Vulnerability Exposes Windows Systems to Attacks

Critical 'BatBadBut' Rust Vulnerability Exposes Windows Systems to Attacks

Apr 10, 2024 Software Security / Vulnerability
A critical security flaw in the Rust standard library could be exploited to target Windows users and stage command injection attacks. The vulnerability, tracked as  CVE-2024-24576 , has a CVSS score of 10.0, indicating maximum severity. That said, it only impacts scenarios where batch files are invoked on Windows with untrusted arguments. "The Rust standard library did not properly escape arguments when invoking batch files (with the bat and cmd extensions) on Windows using the Command API," the Rust Security Response working group  said  in an advisory released on April 9, 2024. "An attacker able to control the arguments passed to the spawned process could execute arbitrary shell commands by bypassing the escaping." The flaw impacts all versions of Rust before 1.77.2. Security researcher  RyotaK  has been credited with discovering and reporting the bug to the CERT Coordination Center ( CERT/CC ). RyotaK said the vulnerability – codenamed BatBadBut – impacts
The Drop in Ransomware Attacks in 2024 and What it Means

The Drop in Ransomware Attacks in 2024 and What it Means

Apr 08, 2024Ransomware / Cybercrime
The  ransomware industry surged in 2023  as it saw an alarming 55.5% increase in victims worldwide, reaching a staggering 5,070.  But 2024 is starting off showing a very different picture.  While the numbers skyrocketed in Q4 2023 with 1309 cases, in Q1 2024, the ransomware industry was down to 1,048 cases. This is a 22% decrease in ransomware attacks compared to Q4 2023. Figure 1: Victims per quarter There could be several reasons for this significant drop.  Reason 1: The Law Enforcement Intervention Firstly, law enforcement has upped the ante in 2024 with actions against both LockBit and ALPHV. The LockBit Arrests In February, an international operation named "Operation Cronos" culminated in the arrest of at least three associates of the infamous LockBit ransomware syndicate in Poland and Ukraine.  Law enforcement from multiple countries collaborated to take down LockBit's infrastructure. This included seizing their dark web domains and gaining access to their backend sys
Behind the Scenes: The Art of Safeguarding Non-Human Identities

Behind the Scenes: The Art of Safeguarding Non-Human Identities

Mar 28, 2024 Secrets Management / Zero Trust
In the whirlwind of modern software development, teams race against time, constantly pushing the boundaries of innovation and efficiency. This relentless pace is fueled by an evolving tech landscape, where SaaS domination, the proliferation of microservices, and the ubiquity of CI/CD pipelines are not just trends but the new norm. Amidst this backdrop, a critical aspect subtly weaves into the narrative — the handling of non-human identities. The need to manage API keys, passwords, and other sensitive data becomes more than a checklist item yet is often overshadowed by the sprint toward quicker releases and cutting-edge features. The challenge is clear: How do software teams maintain the sanctity of secrets without slowing down their stride? Challenges in the development stage of non-human identities The pressure to deliver rapidly in organizations today can lead developers to take shortcuts, compromising security. Secrets are the credentials used for non-human identities. Some stan
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WATCH: The SaaS Security Challenge in 90 Seconds

websiteAdaptive ShieldSaaS Security / Cyber Threat
Discover how you can overcome the SaaS security challenge by securing your entire SaaS stack with SSPM.
Hackers Hijack GitHub Accounts in Supply Chain Attack Affecting Top-gg and Others

Hackers Hijack GitHub Accounts in Supply Chain Attack Affecting Top-gg and Others

Mar 25, 2024 Supply Chain Attack / Cryptocurrency
Unidentified adversaries orchestrated a sophisticated attack campaign that has impacted several individual developers as well as the GitHub organization account associated with Top.gg, a Discord bot discovery site. "The threat actors used multiple TTPs in this attack, including account takeover via stolen browser cookies, contributing malicious code with verified commits, setting up a custom Python mirror, and publishing malicious packages to the PyPI registry," Checkmarx  said  in a technical report shared with The Hacker News. The software supply chain attack is said to have led to the theft of sensitive information, including passwords, credentials, and other valuable data. Some aspects of the campaign were  previously   disclosed  at the start of the month by an Egypt-based developer named Mohammed Dief. It chiefly entailed setting up a clever typosquat of the official PyPI domain known as "files. python hosted[.]org," giving it the name "files. pypi ho
New "GoFetch" Vulnerability in Apple M-Series Chips Leaks Secret Encryption Keys

New "GoFetch" Vulnerability in Apple M-Series Chips Leaks Secret Encryption Keys

Mar 25, 2024 Hardware Security / Data Protection
A new security shortcoming discovered in Apple M-series chips could be exploited to extract secret keys used during cryptographic operations. Dubbed  GoFetch , the vulnerability relates to a microarchitectural side-channel attack that takes advantage of a feature known as data memory-dependent prefetcher (DMP) to target constant-time cryptographic implementations and capture sensitive data from the CPU cache. Apple was made aware of the findings in December 2023. Prefetchers are a hardware optimization technique that predicts what memory addresses a currently running program will access in the near future and retrieve the data into the cache accordingly from the main memory. The goal of this approach is to reduce the program's memory access latency. DMP is a type of prefetcher that takes into account the contents of memory based on previously observed access patterns when determining what to prefetch. This behavior makes it ripe for cache-based attacks that trick the prefetche
Over 800 npm Packages Found with Discrepancies, 18 Exploit 'Manifest Confusion'

Over 800 npm Packages Found with Discrepancies, 18 Exploit 'Manifest Confusion'

Mar 21, 2024 Software Security / Open Source
New research has discovered over 800 packages in the npm registry which have discrepancies from their registry entries, out of which 18 have been found to exploit a technique called  manifest confusion . The findings come from cybersecurity firm JFrog, which said the issue could be exploited by threat actors to trick developers into running malicious code. "It's an actual threat since developers may be tricked into downloading packages that look innocent, but whose hidden dependencies are actually malicious," security researcher Andrey Polkovnichenko told The Hacker News. Manifest confusion was  first documented  in July 2023, when security researcher Darcy Clarke found that mismatches in manifest and package metadata could be weaponized to stage software supply chain attacks. The problem stems from the fact that the npm registry does not validate whether the manifest file contained in the tarball (package.json) matches the manifest data provided to the npm server d
GitHub Launches AI-Powered Autofix Tool to Assist Devs in Patching Security Flaws

GitHub Launches AI-Powered Autofix Tool to Assist Devs in Patching Security Flaws

Mar 21, 2024 Machine Learning / Software Security
GitHub on Wednesday announced that it's making available a feature called code scanning autofix in public beta for all  Advanced Security customers  to provide targeted recommendations in an effort to avoid introducing new security issues. "Powered by  GitHub Copilot  and  CodeQL , code scanning autofix covers more than 90% of alert types in JavaScript, Typescript, Java, and Python, and delivers code suggestions shown to remediate more than two-thirds of found vulnerabilities with little or no editing," GitHub's Pierre Tempel and Eric Tooley  said . The capability,  first previewed  in November 2023, leverages a combination of CodeQL, Copilot APIs, and OpenAI GPT-4 to generate code suggestions. The Microsoft-owned subsidiary also said it plans to add support for more programming languages, including C# and Go, in the future. Code scanning autofix is designed to help developers resolve vulnerabilities as they code by generating potential fixes as well as providing
Atlassian Releases Fixes for Over 2 Dozen Flaws, Including Critical Bamboo Bug

Atlassian Releases Fixes for Over 2 Dozen Flaws, Including Critical Bamboo Bug

Mar 21, 2024 Database / Vulnerability
Atlassian has released patches for  more than two dozen security flaws , including a critical bug impacting Bamboo Data Center and Server that could be exploited without requiring user interaction. Tracked as  CVE-2024-1597 , the vulnerability carries a CVSS score of 10.0, indicating maximum severity. Described as an SQL injection flaw, it's rooted in a dependency called org.postgresql:postgresql, as a result of which the company said it "presents a lower assessed risk" despite the criticality. "This org.postgresql:postgresql dependency vulnerability [...] could allow an unauthenticated attacker to expose assets in your environment susceptible to exploitation which has high impact to confidentiality, high impact to integrity, high impact to availability, and requires no user interaction," Atlassian  said . According to a  description  of the flaw in the NIST's National Vulnerability Database (NVD), "pgjdbc, the PostgreSQL JDBC Driver, allows attac
APIs Drive the Majority of Internet Traffic and Cybercriminals are Taking Advantage

APIs Drive the Majority of Internet Traffic and Cybercriminals are Taking Advantage

Mar 19, 2024 API Security / Vulnerability
Application programming interfaces (APIs) are the connective tissue behind digital modernization, helping applications and databases exchange data more effectively.  The State of API Security in 2024 Report  from Imperva, a Thales company, found that the majority of internet traffic (71%) in 2023 was API calls. What's more, a typical enterprise site saw an average of 1.5 billion API calls in 2023. The expansive volume of internet traffic that passes through APIs should be concerning for every security professional. Despite best efforts to adopt shift-left frameworks and SDLC processes, APIs are often still pushed into production before they're cataloged, authenticated, or audited. On average, organizations have 613 API endpoints in production, but that number is rapidly expanding as pressure grows to deliver digital services to customers more quickly and efficiently. Over time, these APIs can become risky, vulnerable endpoints.  In their report, Imperva concludes that APIs are now a
GitHub Rolls Out Default Secret Scanning Push Protection for Public Repositories

GitHub Rolls Out Default Secret Scanning Push Protection for Public Repositories

Mar 01, 2024 DevSecOps / Cybersecurity
GitHub on Thursday announced that it's enabling secret scanning push protection by default for all pushes to public repositories. "This means that when a supported secret is detected in any push to a public repository, you will have the option to remove the secret from your commits or, if you deem the secret safe, bypass the block," Eric Tooley and Courtney Claessens  said . Push protection  was  first piloted  as an opt-in feature in August 2023, although it has been under testing since April 2022. It became  generally available  in May 2023. The  secret scanning  feature is designed to identify over  200 token types  and patterns from more than 180 service providers in order to prevent their fraudulent use by malicious actors.  The development comes nearly five months after the Microsoft subsidiary  expanded  secret scanning to include validity checks for popular services such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft, Google, and Slack. It also follows the discovery of an ongoi
Lazarus Exploits Typos to Sneak PyPI Malware into Dev Systems

Lazarus Exploits Typos to Sneak PyPI Malware into Dev Systems

Feb 29, 2024 Malware / Endpoint Security
The notorious North Korean state-backed hacking group Lazarus uploaded four packages to the Python Package Index (PyPI) repository with the goal of infecting developer systems with malware. The packages, now taken down, are  pycryptoenv ,  pycryptoconf ,  quasarlib , and  swapmempool . They have been collectively downloaded 3,269 times, with pycryptoconf accounting for the most downloads at 1,351. "The package names pycryptoenv and pycryptoconf are similar to pycrypto, which is a Python package used for encryption algorithms in Python," JPCERT/CC researcher Shusei Tomonaga  said . "Therefore, the attacker probably prepared the malware-containing malicious packages to target users' typos in installing Python packages." The disclosure comes days after Phylum  uncovered  several rogue packages on the npm registry that have been used to single out software developers as part of a campaign codenamed Contagious Interview. An interesting commonality between the t
Three Tips to Protect Your Secrets from AI Accidents

Three Tips to Protect Your Secrets from AI Accidents

Feb 26, 2024 Data Privacy / Machine Learning
Last year, the Open Worldwide Application Security Project (OWASP) published multiple versions of the " OWASP Top 10 For Large Language Models ," reaching a 1.0 document in August and a 1.1 document in October. These documents not only demonstrate the rapidly evolving nature of Large Language Models, but the evolving ways in which they can be attacked and defended. We're going to talk in this article about four items in that top 10 that are most able to contribute to the accidental disclosure of secrets such as passwords, API keys, and more. We're already aware that LLMs can reveal secrets because it's happened. In early 2023, GitGuardian reported it found over 10 million secrets in public Github commits. Github's Copilot AI coding tool was trained on public commits, and in September of 2023, researchers at the University of Hong Kong published a paper on how they created an algorithm that generated 900 prompts designed to get Copilot to reveal secrets from
Researchers Detail Apple's Recent Zero-Click Shortcuts Vulnerability

Researchers Detail Apple's Recent Zero-Click Shortcuts Vulnerability

Feb 23, 2024 Data Privacy / iOS Security
Details have emerged about a now-patched high-severity security flaw in Apple's Shortcuts app that could permit a shortcut to access sensitive information on the device without users' consent. The vulnerability, tracked as  CVE-2024-23204  (CVSS score: 7.5), was addressed by Apple on January 22, 2024, with the release of  iOS 17.3, iPadOS 17.3 ,  macOS Sonoma 14.3 , and  watchOS 10.3 . "A shortcut may be able to use sensitive data with certain actions without prompting the user," the iPhone maker said in an advisory, stating it was fixed with "additional permissions checks." Apple Shortcuts is a  scripting application  that allows users to create personalized workflows (aka macros) for  executing   specific tasks  on their devices. It comes installed by default on iOS, iPadOS, macOS, and watchOS operating systems. Bitdefender security researcher Jubaer Alnazi Jabin, who discovered and reported the Shortcuts bug, said it could be weaponized to create a
Critical Boot Loader Vulnerability in Shim Impacts Nearly All Linux Distros

Critical Boot Loader Vulnerability in Shim Impacts Nearly All Linux Distros

Feb 07, 2024 Device Security / Vulnerability
The maintainers of shim have released  version 15.8  to address six security flaws, including a critical bug that could pave the way for remote code execution under specific circumstances. Tracked as  CVE-2023-40547  (CVSS score: 9.8), the vulnerability could be exploited to achieve a Secure Boot bypass. Bill Demirkapi of the Microsoft Security Response Center (MSRC) has been  credited  with discovering and reporting the bug. Major Linux distributions that use shim such as Debian , Red Hat , SUSE , and Ubuntu have all released advisories for the security flaw. "The shim's http boot support (httpboot.c) trusts attacker-controlled values when parsing an HTTP response, leading to a completely controlled out-of-bounds write primitive," Oracle's Alan Coopersmith  noted  in a message shared on the Open Source Security mailing list oss-security. Demirkapi, in a  post  shared on X (formerly Twitter) late last month, said the vulnerability "exists in every Linux bo
New Glibc Flaw Grants Attackers Root Access on Major Linux Distros

New Glibc Flaw Grants Attackers Root Access on Major Linux Distros

Jan 31, 2024 Vulnerability / Endpoint Security
Malicious local attackers can obtain full root access on Linux machines by taking advantage of a newly disclosed security flaw in the GNU C library (aka glibc). Tracked as CVE-2023-6246 (CVSS score: 7.8), the heap-based buffer overflow vulnerability is rooted in glibc's __vsyslog_internal() function, which is used by  syslog() and vsyslog()  for system logging purposes. It's said to have been accidentally introduced in August 2022 with the release of glibc 2.37. "This flaw allows local privilege escalation, enabling an unprivileged user to gain full root access," Saeed Abbasi, product manager of the Threat Research Unit at Qualys,  said , adding it impacts major Linux distributions like Debian, Ubuntu, and Fedora. A threat actor could exploit the flaw to obtain elevated permissions via specially crafted inputs to applications that employ these logging functions. "Although the  vulnerability  requires specific conditions to be exploited (such as an unusuall
URGENT: Upgrade GitLab - Critical Workspace Creation Flaw Allows File Overwrite

URGENT: Upgrade GitLab - Critical Workspace Creation Flaw Allows File Overwrite

Jan 30, 2024 DevSecOps / Vulnerability
GitLab once again released fixes to address a critical security flaw in its Community Edition (CE) and Enterprise Edition (EE) that could be exploited to write arbitrary files while creating a  workspace . Tracked as  CVE-2024-0402 , the vulnerability has a CVSS score of 9.9 out of a maximum of 10. "An issue has been discovered in GitLab CE/EE affecting all versions from 16.0 prior to 16.5.8, 16.6 prior to 16.6.6, 16.7 prior to 16.7.4, and 16.8 prior to 16.8.1 which allows an authenticated user to write files to arbitrary locations on the GitLab server while creating a workspace," GitLab  said  in an advisory released on January 25, 2024. The company also noted patches for the bug have been backported to 16.5.8, 16.6.6, 16.7.4, and 16.8.1. Also resolved by GitLab are four medium-severity flaws that could lead to a regular expression denial-of-service (ReDoS), HTML injection, and the disclosure of a user's public email address via the tags RSS feed. The latest updat
Russian TrickBot Mastermind Gets 5-Year Prison Sentence for Cybercrime Spree

Russian TrickBot Mastermind Gets 5-Year Prison Sentence for Cybercrime Spree

Jan 26, 2024 Cyber Crime / Malware
40-year-old Russian national Vladimir Dunaev has been sentenced to five years and four months in prison for his role in creating and distributing the TrickBot malware, the U.S. Department of Justice (DoJ) said. The development comes nearly two months after  Dunaev pleaded guilty  to committing computer fraud and identity theft and conspiracy to commit wire fraud and bank fraud. "Hospitals, schools, and businesses were among the millions of TrickBot victims who suffered tens of millions of dollars in losses," DoJ  said . "While active, TrickBot malware, which acted as an initial intrusion vector into victim computer systems, was used to support various ransomware variants." Originating as a banking trojan in 2016, TrickBot evolved into a Swiss Army knife capable of delivering additional payloads, including ransomware. Following efforts to take down the botnet, it was absorbed into the Conti ransomware operation in 2022. The cybercrime crew's allegiance to
Critical Jenkins Vulnerability Exposes Servers to RCE Attacks - Patch ASAP!

Critical Jenkins Vulnerability Exposes Servers to RCE Attacks - Patch ASAP!

Jan 25, 2024 Vulnerability / Software Security
The maintainers of the open-source continuous integration/continuous delivery and deployment (CI/CD) automation software Jenkins have resolved nine security flaws, including a critical bug that, if successfully exploited, could result in remote code execution (RCE). The issue, assigned the CVE identifier  CVE-2024-23897 , has been described as an arbitrary file read vulnerability through the built-in command line interface ( CLI ) "Jenkins uses the args4j library to parse command arguments and options on the Jenkins controller when processing CLI commands," the maintainers  said  in a Wednesday advisory. "This command parser has a feature that replaces an @ character followed by a file path in an argument with the file's contents (expandAtFiles). This feature is enabled by default and Jenkins 2.441 and earlier, LTS 2.426.2 and earlier does not disable it." A threat actor could exploit this quirk to read arbitrary files on the Jenkins controller file system
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