In the current digital landscape, data has emerged as a crucial asset for organizations, akin to currency. It's the lifeblood of any organization in today's interconnected and digital world. Thus, safeguarding the data is of paramount importance. Its importance is magnified in on-premises Exchange Server environments where vital business communication and emails are stored and managed.
In this article, you will learn about the evolving threats of data loss, the shift in responsibilities of administrators, and key backup and recovery strategies for preventing data loss in the Exchange Server environment.
Data Loss Scenarios in Exchange Servers
Data loss in on-premises Exchange Server environment has become increasingly common. Cybersecurity threats, like ransomware attacks, have emerged as a significant cause of data loss in recent years, with many financially motivated threat actors increasingly targeting the vulnerabilities in Exchange Servers. These attackers try to exploit the vulnerabilities, such as ProxyLogon, to gain unauthorized access to the server or users' email accounts.
Besides vulnerabilities in the system, hardware failure and human errors can also cause data loss in on-premises Exchange Servers. According to a study by Gartner, it is estimated that 30% of organizations will experience an incident involving data loss caused by a negligent employee by 2025.
Evolving Role of Exchange Server Administrators
The role of Exchange Server administrators has significantly evolved in recent years due to increasing malware/ransomware attacks, forcing them to quickly adapt and act as guardians to protect the organizations' data and reputation.
However, the complexity of managing huge volumes of data in modern on-premises Exchange Server environments has also increased substantially. Today, administrators need to navigate the complexity of the Exchange Server environment, which is primarily driven by factors such as requirements for enhanced security measures to fight against sophisticated cybercriminals and newer threats.
Understanding the Stakes
The consequences of data loss in Exchange Server environments are profound.
1. Financial Losses
Financial losses are one of the most common consequences of data loss. The operations of an organization are supported by data. If the data is lost, it means the organization loses not only its ability to generate income but also its ways of operating. In addition, when data is lost, a considerable amount of resources are channeled towards data recovery.
2. Reputational Damage
Building trust takes time. However, losing it takes only one bad decision. A data breach or ransomware attack can severely tarnish an organization's reputation in the market, breaking customers' or clients' trust. Nobody wants to end up in the headlines of the media for all the wrong reasons.
3. Downtime and Lack of Business Continuity
Email communication is essential for daily operations. Loss of critical data can disrupt workflow and hamper productivity, which can have severe implications on the organization.
A report by IDC states that the average cost of downtime due to data loss in a mid-sized organization is approximately $1.25 million per year.
4. Business Closure
Data loss can potentially lead to an organization's bankruptcy or closure. According to the University of Texas, 94% of companies that suffer from catastrophic data loss do not survive. Out of these, 43% never reopened, and 51% closed within two years.
5. Regulatory and Legal Fines
Businesses are obliged by the data protection laws, rules, regulations, and industry standards. Failing to do so can have severe implications, such as hefty fines. Legal actions can also undermine your organization's reputation.
Prevent Data Loss - Develop a Thoughtful Backup Strategy
The most common reason for data loss in Exchange Servers is database corruption or damage. To safeguard against data loss, administrators need a comprehensive backup strategy tailored to their Exchange Server environments.
Below are some Exchange Server backup methods and strategies that administrators can follow to prevent permanent data loss.
1. Utilize VSS-Based Backup
Exchange Server supports Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS)-based backups. You can use the Exchange-aware Windows Server Backup application with a VSS plug-in to back up active and passive Exchange database copies and restore the backed-up database copies.
2. Backup Combination
Exchange administrators should ideally use a combination of full and incremental backups. Full backups capture the entire Exchange Server database, while Exchange Server incremental backups capture and store the changes since the last full backup.
In addition, there are differential backups that record changes since the last full backup without truncating transaction logs. However, these are used less frequently due to their complexity.
3. Transaction Log Management
Transaction logs play a crucial role in maintaining database consistency. It's also critical for database recovery on Exchange Servers. When you perform a full backup, it automatically truncates the transaction logs to save disk storage. Thus, always backup the transaction logs before performing a full backup.
4. Circular Logging
Circular logging is disabled in Exchange Server by default. However, administrators can enable it to truncate the database logs automatically. You can use this when the transaction logs are not purging automatically after a full backup.
5. Follow the 3-2-1 Backup Rule
Follow the 3-2-1 backup strategy to protect your Exchange Server data from permanent loss. The strategy simply states that you must have the following:
- At least three copies of your data on different media, such as disks and tape.
- One copy is stored off-site or in a remote location to ensure that natural, man-made, or geographical disasters cannot damage all the backup copies (disaster recovery).
Proactive Measures for Data Protection
A proactive approach has been fundamental in preventing data loss. Therefore, administrators should consider the following best practices for data protection:
- Robust Security Measures
- Implement robust security protocols, regularly update security software, and install Exchange Server and Windows updates to protect against threats.
- Continuous Learning
- Continuous learning and training about email security and cyber-attacks among administrators, employees, and customers is critical to stay informed about emerging threats and vulnerabilities.
- Access Control
- Restrict access to sensitive data and implement strong authentication mechanisms. Make sure to use the RBAC to restrict access on Windows and Exchange Server environments.
Exchange Server Recovery Strategies
Exchange administrators also need to be ready when it comes to the recovery of corrupt or dismounted databases in case something happens. Here are some strategies that can help in the quick recovery of the database in case of an issue or incident.
1. Recovery Databases
Recovery databases (RDBs) are special Exchange Server databases that allow administrators to mount and extract data from the restored mailbox database. RDBs help in restoring data without impacting the live environment.
Exchange Server 2016 and 2019 have capabilities to safeguard data without relying solely on traditional backups.
3. Dial Tone Portability
Administrators can use Dial Tone Portability or Dial Tone Recovery. In this, an empty Exchange database with the same database name and schema version is created that allows users to continue to send and receive new emails while the administrators restore and recover the failed databases. This method provides continuity during disaster recovery.
4. Exchange Recovery Tools
In case of a server crash and/or when the Exchange database backup isn't available or obsolete, Exchange recovery tool, such as Stellar Repair for Exchange, can help Exchange administrators extract mailboxes from severely corrupt or damaged Exchange database. The tool also assists in the dial tone recovery method. It allows the extraction and export of recovered mailboxes from damaged EDB files to the dial tone database or any existing healthy database on the same Exchange Server. This helps restore the mailboxes of users and their Outlook connectivity and minimize downtime and disruption.
Exchange Server administrators play a critical role in protecting crucial business data in an increasingly challenging landscape. The risks associated with data loss are substantial and range from financial repercussions to damage to the organization's reputation. To mitigate these risks, administrators must develop thoughtful backup strategies and adopt proactive security measures along with robust recovery plans in place.
To mitigate data loss risks, organizations should prioritize backup and recovery strategies. Regularly backing up Exchange Server data and having a well-defined recovery plan can significantly reduce the impact of data loss incidents.