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New Tricks in the Phishing Playbook: Cloudflare Workers, HTML Smuggling, GenAI

New Tricks in the Phishing Playbook: Cloudflare Workers, HTML Smuggling, GenAI
May 27, 2024 Phishing Attack / Artificial Intelligence
Cybersecurity researchers are alerting of phishing campaigns that abuse  Cloudflare Workers  to serve phishing sites that are used to harvest users' credentials associated with Microsoft, Gmail, Yahoo!, and cPanel Webmail. The attack method, called transparent phishing or adversary-in-the-middle ( AitM ) phishing, "uses Cloudflare Workers to act as a reverse proxy server for a legitimate login page, intercepting traffic between the victim and the login page to capture credentials, cookies, and tokens," Netskope researcher Jan Michael Alcantara  said  in a report. A majority of phishing campaigns hosted on Cloudflare Workers over the past 30 days have targeted victims in Asia, North America, and Southern Europe, spanning technology, financial services, and banking sectors. The cybersecurity firm said that an increase in traffic to Cloudflare Workers-hosted phishing pages was first registered in Q2 2023, noting it observed a spike in the total number of distinct domains

The End of an Era: Microsoft Phases Out VBScript for JavaScript and PowerShell

The End of an Era: Microsoft Phases Out VBScript for JavaScript and PowerShell
May 23, 2024 Endpoint Security / Data Privacy
Microsoft on Wednesday outlined its plans to deprecate Visual Basic Script (VBScript) in the second half of 2024 in favor of more advanced alternatives such as JavaScript and PowerShell. "Technology has advanced over the years, giving rise to more powerful and versatile scripting languages such as JavaScript and PowerShell," Microsoft Program Manager Naveen Shankar  said . "These languages offer broader capabilities and are better suited for modern web development and automation tasks." The tech giant originally  announced  its plans to gradually sunset VBScript in October 2023. The scripting language, also called Visual Basic Scripting Edition, was first introduced by Microsoft in 1996 as a Windows system component, offering users the ability to automate tasks and develop interactive web pages using Internet Explorer and Edge (in  Internet Explorer mode ). The announced deprecation plan consists of three phases, with the first phase kicking off in the second h

Windows 11 to Deprecate NTLM, Add AI-Powered App Controls and Security Defenses

Windows 11 to Deprecate NTLM, Add AI-Powered App Controls and Security Defenses
May 21, 2024 Windows 11 Security
 Microsoft on Monday confirmed its plans to deprecate NT LAN Manager (NTLM) in Windows 11 in the second half of the year, as it announced a slew of new security measures to harden the widely-used desktop operating system. "Deprecating NTLM has been a huge ask from our security community as it will strengthen user authentication, and deprecation is planned in the second half of 2024," the tech giant  said . The Windows maker  originally announced  its decision to drop NTLM in favor of Kerberos for authentication in October 2023. NTLM's lack of support for cryptographic methods such as AES or SHA-256 notwithstanding, the protocol has also been rendered susceptible to relay attacks, a technique that has been widely exploited by the Russia-linked  APT28 actor  via zero-day flaws in Microsoft Outlook. Other changes coming to Windows 11 include enabling  Local Security Authority (LSA) protection  by default for new consumer devices and the use of virtualization-based secur

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Defending Your Commits From Known CVEs With GitGuardian SCA And Git Hooks

Defending Your Commits From Known CVEs With GitGuardian SCA And Git Hooks
May 20, 2024Software Security / Vulnerability
All developers want to create secure and dependable software. They should feel proud to release their code with the full confidence they did not introduce any weaknesses or anti-patterns into their applications. Unfortunately, developers are not writing their own code for the most part these days. 96% of all software contains some open-source components, and open-source components make up between  70% and 90% of any given piece of modern software . Unfortunately for our security-minded developers, most modern vulnerabilities come from those software components.  As new vulnerabilities emerge and are publicly reported as  Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures  (CVEs), security teams have little choice but to ask the developer to refactor the code to include different versions of the dependencies. Nobody is happy in this situation, as it blocks new features and can be maddening to roll back component versions and hope that nothing breaks. Developers need a way to  quickly  determine if

North Korean Hackers Exploit Facebook Messenger in Targeted Malware Campaign

North Korean Hackers Exploit Facebook Messenger in Targeted Malware Campaign
May 16, 2024 Malware / Cyber Espionage
The North Korea-linked  Kimsuky hacking group  has been attributed to a new social engineering attack that employs fictitious Facebook accounts to targets via Messenger and ultimately delivers malware. "The threat actor created a Facebook account with a fake identity disguised as a public official working in the North Korean human rights field," South Korean cybersecurity company Genians  said  in a report published last week. The multi-stage attack campaign, which impersonates a legitimate individual, is designed to target activists in the North Korean human rights and anti-North Korea sectors, it noted. The approach is a departure from the typical email-based spear-phishing strategy in that it leverages the social media platform to approach targets through Facebook Messenger and trick them into opening seemingly private documents written by the persona. The decoy documents, hosted on OneDrive, is a Microsoft Common Console document that masquerades as an essay or cont

Cybercriminals Exploiting Microsoft's Quick Assist Feature in Ransomware Attacks

Cybercriminals Exploiting Microsoft’s Quick Assist Feature in Ransomware Attacks
May 16, 2024 Ransomware / Incident Response
The Microsoft Threat Intelligence team said it has observed a threat actor it tracks under the name  Storm-1811  abusing the client management tool Quick Assist to target users in social engineering attacks. "Storm-1811 is a financially motivated cybercriminal group known to deploy  Black Basta  ransomware," the company  said  in a report published on May 15, 2024. The attack chain involves the use of impersonation through voice phishing to trick unsuspecting victims into installing remote monitoring and management (RMM) tools, followed by the delivery of  QakBot , Cobalt Strike, and ultimately Black Basta ransomware. "Threat actors misuse Quick Assist features to perform social engineering attacks by pretending, for example, to be a trusted contact like Microsoft technical support or an IT professional from the target user's company to gain initial access to a target device," the tech giant said. Quick Assist is a  legitimate application  from Microsoft t

Microsoft Patches 61 Flaws, Including Two Actively Exploited Zero-Days

Microsoft Patches 61 Flaws, Including Two Actively Exploited Zero-Days
May 15, 2024 Patch Tuesday / Vulnerability
Microsoft has addressed a total of  61 new security flaws  in its software as part of its Patch Tuesday updates for May 2024, including two zero-days which have been actively exploited in the wild. Of the 61 flaws, one is rated Critical, 59 are rated Important, and one is rated Moderate in severity. This is in addition to  30 vulnerabilities  resolved in the Chromium-based Edge browser over the past month, including two recently disclosed zero-days ( CVE-2024-4671  and  CVE-2024-4761 ) that have been tagged as exploited in attacks. The two security shortcomings that have been weaponized in the wild are below - CVE-2024-30040  (CVSS score: 8.8) - Windows MSHTML Platform Security Feature Bypass Vulnerability CVE-2024-30051  (CVSS score: 7.8) - Windows Desktop Window Manager ( DWM ) Core Library Elevation of Privilege Vulnerability "An unauthenticated attacker who successfully exploited this vulnerability could gain code execution through convincing a user to open a malicious

Microsoft Outlook Flaw Exploited by Russia's APT28 to Hack Czech, German Entities

Microsoft Outlook Flaw Exploited by Russia's APT28 to Hack Czech, German Entities
May 04, 2024 Cyber Espionage / Network Security
Czechia and Germany on Friday revealed that they were the target of a long-term cyber espionage campaign conducted by the Russia-linked nation-state actor known as  APT28 , drawing condemnation from the European Union (E.U.), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the U.K., and the U.S. The Czech Republic's Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA), in a statement, said some unnamed entities in the country have been attacked using a security flaw in Microsoft Outlook that came to light early last year. "Cyber attacks targeting political entities, state institutions and critical infrastructure are not only a threat to national security, but also disrupt the democratic processes on which our free society is based," the MFA  said . The security flaw in question is  CVE-2023-23397 , a now-patched critical privilege escalation bug in Outlook that could allow an adversary to access Net-NTLMv2 hashes and then use them to authenticate themselves by means of a relay attack. G

Hackers Increasingly Abusing Microsoft Graph API for Stealthy Malware Communications

Hackers Increasingly Abusing Microsoft Graph API for Stealthy Malware Communications
May 03, 2024 Cloud Security / Threat Intelligence
Threat actors have been increasingly weaponizing  Microsoft Graph API  for malicious purposes with the aim of evading detection. This is done to "facilitate communications with command-and-control (C&C) infrastructure hosted on Microsoft cloud services," the Symantec Threat Hunter Team, part of Broadcom,  said  in a report shared with The Hacker News. Since January 2022, multiple nation-state-aligned hacking groups have been observed using Microsoft Graph API for C&C. This includes threat actors tracked as  APT28 ,  REF2924 ,  Red Stinger ,  Flea ,  APT29 , and  OilRig . The first known instance of Microsoft Graph API abuse prior to its wider adoption dates back to June 2021 in connection with an activity cluster dubbed  Harvester  that was found using a custom implant known as Graphon that utilized the API to communicate with Microsoft infrastructure. Symantec said it recently detected the use of the same technique against an unnamed organization in Ukraine, wh

Ukraine Targeted in Cyberattack Exploiting 7-Year-Old Microsoft Office Flaw

Ukraine Targeted in Cyberattack Exploiting 7-Year-Old Microsoft Office Flaw
Apr 27, 2024 Cyber Attack / Malware
Cybersecurity researchers have discovered a targeted operation against Ukraine that has been found leveraging a nearly seven-year-old flaw in Microsoft Office to deliver Cobalt Strike on compromised systems. The attack chain, which took place at the end of 2023 according to Deep Instinct, employs a PowerPoint slideshow file ("signal-2023-12-20-160512.ppsx") as the starting point, with the filename implying that it may have been shared via the Signal instant messaging app. That having said, there is no actual evidence to indicate that the PPSX file was distributed in this manner, even though the Computer Emergency Response Team of Ukraine (CERT-UA) has uncovered  two different campaigns  that have used the  messaging app  as a  malware delivery vector  in the past. Just last week, the agency  disclosed  that Ukrainian armed forces are being increasingly targeted by the UAC-0184 group via messaging and dating platforms to serve malware like  HijackLoader  (aka  GHOSTPULSE  

Russia's APT28 Exploited Windows Print Spooler Flaw to Deploy 'GooseEgg' Malware

Russia's APT28 Exploited Windows Print Spooler Flaw to Deploy 'GooseEgg' Malware
Apr 23, 2024 National Security Agency / Threat Intelligence
The Russia-linked nation-state threat actor tracked as  APT28  weaponized a security flaw in the Microsoft Windows Print Spooler component to deliver a previously unknown custom malware called GooseEgg. The post-compromise tool, which is said to have been used since at least June 2020 and possibly as early as April 2019, leveraged a now-patched flaw that allowed for privilege escalation (CVE-2022-38028, CVSS score: 7.8). It was  addressed  by Microsoft as part of updates released in October 2022, with the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) credited for reporting the flaw at the time. According to new findings from the tech giant's threat intelligence team,  APT28  – also called Fancy Bear and Forest Blizzard (formerly Strontium) – weaponized the bug in attacks targeting Ukrainian, Western European, and North American government, non-governmental, education, and transportation sector organizations. "Forest Blizzard has used the tool [...] to exploit the CVE-2022-38028 vu

Russian APT Deploys New 'Kapeka' Backdoor in Eastern European Attacks

Russian APT Deploys New 'Kapeka' Backdoor in Eastern European Attacks
Apr 17, 2024 Ransomware / Cyber Espionage
A previously undocumented "flexible" backdoor called  Kapeka  has been "sporadically" observed in cyber attacks targeting Eastern Europe, including Estonia and Ukraine, since at least mid-2022. The findings come from Finnish cybersecurity firm WithSecure, which attributed the malware to the Russia-linked advanced persistent threat (APT) group tracked as  Sandworm  (aka APT44 or Seashell Blizzard). Microsoft is tracking the same malware under the name KnuckleTouch. "The malware [...] is a flexible backdoor with all the necessary functionalities to serve as an early-stage toolkit for its operators, and also to provide long-term access to the victim estate," security researcher Mohammad Kazem Hassan Nejad  said . Kapeka comes fitted with a dropper that's designed to launch and execute a backdoor component on the infected host, after which it removes itself. The dropper is also responsible for setting up persistence for the backdoor either as a schedul

U.S. Federal Agencies Ordered to Hunt for Signs of Microsoft Breach and Mitigate Risks

U.S. Federal Agencies Ordered to Hunt for Signs of Microsoft Breach and Mitigate Risks
Apr 12, 2024 Cyber Attack / Data Breach
The U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) on Thursday issued an emergency directive (ED 24-02) urging federal agencies to hunt for signs of compromise and enact preventive measures following the recent compromise of Microsoft's systems that led to the theft of email correspondence with the company. The attack, which  came to light  earlier this year, has been attributed to a Russian nation-state group tracked as Midnight Blizzard (aka APT29 or Cozy Bear). Last month, Microsoft revealed that the adversary managed to access some of its source code repositories but noted that there is no evidence of a breach of customer-facing systems. The emergency directive, which was originally issued privately to federal agencies on April 2, was  first reported  on by CyberScoop two days later. "The threat actor is using information initially exfiltrated from the corporate email systems, including authentication details shared between Microsoft customers and Micros
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