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Cybersecurity Agencies Warn Ubiquiti EdgeRouter Users of APT28's MooBot Threat

Cybersecurity Agencies Warn Ubiquiti EdgeRouter Users of APT28's MooBot Threat
Feb 28, 2024 Firmware Security / Vulnerability
In a new joint advisory, cybersecurity and intelligence agencies from the U.S. and other countries are urging users of Ubiquiti EdgeRouter to take protective measures, weeks after a botnet comprising infected routers was  felled by law enforcement  as part of an operation codenamed Dying Ember. The botnet, named MooBot, is said to have been used by a Russia-linked threat actor known as APT28 to facilitate covert cyber operations and drop custom malware for follow-on exploitation. APT28, affiliated with Russia's Main Directorate of the General Staff (GRU), is known to be active since at least 2007. APT28 actors have "used compromised EdgeRouters globally to harvest credentials, collect NTLMv2 digests, proxy network traffic, and host spear-phishing landing pages and custom tools," the authorities  said  [PDF]. The adversary's use of EdgeRouters dates back to 2022, with the attacks targeting aerospace and defense, education, energy and utilities, governments, hospita

New Terrapin Flaw Could Let Attackers Downgrade SSH Protocol Security

New Terrapin Flaw Could Let Attackers Downgrade SSH Protocol Security
Jan 01, 2024 Encryption / Network Security
Security researchers from Ruhr University Bochum have discovered a vulnerability in the Secure Shell ( SSH ) cryptographic network protocol that could allow an attacker to downgrade the connection's security by breaking the integrity of the secure channel. Called  Terrapin  ( CVE-2023-48795 , CVSS score: 5.9), the exploit has been described as the "first ever practically exploitable prefix truncation attack." "By carefully adjusting the sequence numbers during the handshake, an attacker can remove an arbitrary amount of messages sent by the client or server at the beginning of the secure channel without the client or server noticing it," researchers Fabian Bäumer, Marcus Brinkmann, and Jörg Schwenk  said . SSH is a  method  for securely sending commands to a computer over an unsecured network. It relies on cryptography to authenticate and encrypt connections between devices. This is accomplished by means of a handshake in which a client and server agree up
Webinar: Learn How to Stop Hackers from Exploiting Hidden Identity Weaknesses

Webinar: Learn How to Stop Hackers from Exploiting Hidden Identity Weaknesses

Apr 10, 2024Webinar / Identity Security
We all know passwords and firewalls are important, but what about the invisible threats lurking beneath the surface of your systems? Identity Threat Exposures (ITEs) are like secret tunnels for hackers – they make your security way more vulnerable than you think. Think of it like this: misconfigurations, forgotten accounts, and old settings are like cracks in your digital fortress walls. Hackers exploit these weaknesses to steal login information, gain sneaky access, and move around your systems unnoticed, whether they're in the cloud or on-site. This upcoming webinar,  " Today's Top 4 Identity Security Threat Exposures: Are You Vulnerable? "  isn't just for tech experts—it's about protecting your business.  We'll use real-world examples and insights from Silverfort's latest report to show you the hidden dangers of ITEs. You'll learn about: The Top 4 Identity Threats You Might Be Overlooking:  We'll name them and explain why they're

New OpenSSH Vulnerability Exposes Linux Systems to Remote Command Injection

New OpenSSH Vulnerability Exposes Linux Systems to Remote Command Injection
Jul 24, 2023 Linux / Network Security
Details have emerged about a now-patched flaw in OpenSSH that could be potentially exploited to run arbitrary commands remotely on compromised hosts under specific conditions. "This vulnerability allows a remote attacker to potentially execute arbitrary commands on vulnerable OpenSSH's forwarded ssh-agent," Saeed Abbasi, manager of vulnerability research at Qualys,  said  in an analysis last week. The vulnerability is being tracked under the CVE identifier  CVE-2023-38408  (CVSS score: N/A). It impacts all versions of OpenSSH before  9.3p2 . OpenSSH is a popular connectivity tool for remote login with the SSH protocol that's used for encrypting all traffic to eliminate eavesdropping, connection hijacking, and other attacks. Successful exploitation requires the presence of certain libraries on the victim system and that the SSH authentication agent is  forwarded  to an attacker-controlled system. SSH agent is a  background program  that maintains users' keys

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New Cryptocurrency Mining Campaign Targets Linux Systems and IoT Devices

New Cryptocurrency Mining Campaign Targets Linux Systems and IoT Devices
Jun 23, 2023 Cryptocurrency / IoT
Internet-facing Linux systems and Internet of Things (IoT) devices are being targeted as part of a new campaign designed to illicitly mine cryptocurrency. "The threat actors behind the attack use a backdoor that deploys a wide array of tools and components such as rootkits and an IRC bot to steal device resources for mining operations," Microsoft threat intelligence researcher Rotem Sde-Or  said . "The backdoor also installs a patched version of OpenSSH on affected devices, allowing threat actors to hijack SSH credentials, move laterally within the network, and conceal malicious SSH connections." To pull off the scheme, misconfigured Linux hosts are brute-forced to gain initial access, following which the threat actors move to disable shell history and fetch a trojanized version of OpenSSH from a remote server. The rogue OpenSSH package is configured to install and launch the backdoor, a shell script that allows the attackers to distribute additional payloads a

Notorious Cyber Gang FIN7 Returns With Cl0p Ransomware in New Wave of Attacks

Notorious Cyber Gang FIN7 Returns With Cl0p Ransomware in New Wave of Attacks
May 20, 2023 Cyber Crime / Ransomware
The notorious cybercrime group known as FIN7 has been observed deploying  Cl0p  (aka Clop) ransomware, marking the threat actor's first ransomware campaign since late 2021. Microsoft, which detected the activity in April 2023, is tracking the financially motivated actor under its new taxonomy  Sangria Tempest . "In these recent attacks, Sangria Tempest uses the PowerShell script POWERTRASH to load the Lizar post-exploitation tool and get a foothold into a target network," the company's threat intelligence team  said . "They then use OpenSSH and Impacket to move laterally and deploy Clop ransomware." FIN7  (aka Carbanak, ELBRUS, and ITG14) has been linked to other ransomware families such as Black Basta, DarkSide, REvil, and LockBit, with the threat actor acting as a precursor for Maze and Ryuk ransomware attacks.  Active since at least 2012, the group has a  track record  of  targeting  a broad spectrum of organizations spanning software, consulting, f

OpenSSH Releases Patch for New Pre-Auth Double Free Vulnerability

OpenSSH Releases Patch for New Pre-Auth Double Free Vulnerability
Feb 06, 2023 Authentication / Vulnerability
The maintainers of OpenSSH have released OpenSSH 9.2 to address a number of security bugs, including a memory safety vulnerability in the OpenSSH server (sshd). Tracked as  CVE-2023-25136 , the shortcoming has been classified as a pre-authentication double free vulnerability that was introduced in version 9.1. "This is not believed to be exploitable, and it occurs in the unprivileged pre-auth process that is subject to chroot(2) and is further sandboxed on most major platforms," OpenSSH disclosed in its  release notes  on February 2, 2023. Credited with  reporting  the flaw to OpenSSH in July 2022 is security researcher Mantas Mikulenas. OpenSSH is the open source implementation of the secure shell ( SSH ) protocol that offers a suite of services for encrypted communications over an unsecured network in a client-server architecture. "The exposure occurs in the chunk of memory freed twice, the 'options.kex_algorithms,'" Saeed Abbasi, manager of vulnera

OpenSSH now supports FIDO U2F security keys for 2-factor authentication

OpenSSH now supports FIDO U2F security keys for 2-factor authentication
Feb 17, 2020
Here's excellent news for sysadmins. You can now use a physical security key as hardware-based two-factor authentication to securely log into a remote system via SSH protocol. OpenSSH, one of the most widely used open-source implementations of the Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol, yesterday announced the 8.2 version of the software that primarily includes two new significant security enhancements. First, OpenSSH 8.2 added support for FIDO/U2F hardware authenticators , and the second, it has deprecated SSH-RSA public key signature algorithm and planned to disable it by default in the future versions of the software. FIDO (Fast Identity Online) protocol based hardware security devices are stronger and fool-proof mechanisms for authentication because it enables public-key cryptography to protect against advanced malware, phishing, and man-in-the-middle attacks. "In OpenSSH, FIDO devices are supported by new public key types' ecdsa-sk' and 'ed25519-sk', along

OpenSSH Now Encrypts Secret Keys in Memory Against Side-Channel Attacks

OpenSSH Now Encrypts Secret Keys in Memory Against Side-Channel Attacks
Jun 22, 2019
In recent years, several groups of cybersecurity researchers have disclosed dozens of memory side-channel vulnerabilities in modern processors and DRAM s, like Rowhammer , RAMBleed , Spectre, and Meltdown . Have you ever noticed they all had at least one thing in common? That's OpenSSH. As a proof-of-concept, many researchers demonstrated their side-channel attacks against OpenSSH application installed on a targeted computer, where an unprivileged attacker-owned process exploits memory read vulnerabilities to steal secret SSH private keys from the restricted memory regions of the system. That's possible because OpenSSH has an agent that keeps a copy of your SSH key in the memory so that you don't have to type your passphrase every time you want to connect to the same remote server. However, modern operating systems by default store sensitive data, including encryption keys and passwords, in the kernel memory which can not be accessed by user-level privileged p

36-Year-Old SCP Clients' Implementation Flaws Discovered

36-Year-Old SCP Clients' Implementation Flaws Discovered
Jan 15, 2019
A set of 36-year-old vulnerabilities has been uncovered in the Secure Copy Protocol (SCP) implementation of many client applications that can be exploited by malicious servers to overwrite arbitrary files in the SCP client target directory unauthorizedly. Session Control Protocol (SCP), also known as secure copy, is a network protocol that allows users to securely transfer files between a local host and a remote host using RCP (Remote Copy Protocol) and SSH protocol. In other terms, SCP, which dates back to 1983, is a secure version of RCP that uses authentication and encryption of SSH protocol to transfer files between a server and a client. Discovered by Harry Sintonen, one of F-Secure's Senior Security Consultants, the vulnerabilities exist due to poor validations performed by the SCP clients, which can be abused by malicious servers or man-in-the-middle (MiTM) attackers to drop or overwrite arbitrary files on the client's system. "Many scp clients fail to ver

LibSSH Flaw Allows Hackers to Take Over Servers Without Password

LibSSH Flaw Allows Hackers to Take Over Servers Without Password
Oct 17, 2018
A four-year-old severe vulnerability has been discovered in the Secure Shell (SSH) implementation library known as Libssh that could allow anyone to completely bypass authentication and gain unfettered administrative control over a vulnerable server without requiring a password. The security vulnerability, tracked as CVE-2018-10933 , is an authentication-bypass issue that was introduced in Libssh version 0.6 released earlier 2014, leaving thousands of enterprise servers open to hackers for the last four years. But before you get frightened, you should know that neither the widely used OpenSSH nor Github's implementation of libssh was affected by the vulnerability. The vulnerability resides due to a coding error in Libssh and is "ridiculously simple" to exploit. According to a security advisory published Tuesday, all an attacker needs to do is sending an "SSH2_MSG_USERAUTH_SUCCESS" message to a server with an SSH connection enabled when it expects an &

12-Year-Old SSH Bug Exposes More than 2 Million IoT Devices

12-Year-Old SSH Bug Exposes More than 2 Million IoT Devices
Oct 14, 2016
Are your internet-connected devices spying on you? Perhaps. We already know that the Internet of Thing (IoT) devices are so badly insecure that hackers are adding them to their botnet network for launching Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks against target services. But, these connected devices are not just limited to conduct DDoS attacks ; they have far more potential to harm you. New research [ PDF ] published by the content delivery network provider Akamai Technologies shows how unknown threat actors are using a 12-year-old vulnerability in OpenSSH to secretly gain control of millions of connected devices. The hackers then turn, what researchers call, these " Internet of Unpatchable Things " into proxies for malicious traffic to attack internet-based targets and 'internet-facing' services, along with the internal networks that host them. Unlike recent attacks via Mirai botnet , the new targeted attack, dubbed SSHowDowN Proxy , specifically ma

Critical OpenSSH Flaw Leaks Private Crypto Keys to Hackers

Critical OpenSSH Flaw Leaks Private Crypto Keys to Hackers
Jan 15, 2016
A 'Serious' security vulnerability has been discovered and fixed in OpenSSH – one of the most widely used open-source implementations of the Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol. The critical vulnerability could be exploited by hackers to force clients to leak their secret private cryptographic keys, potentially exposing users to Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attacks. What Causes the Flaw to occur? The serious bug was actually the result of a code that enables an experimental " roaming " feature in the OpenSSH versions 5.4 to 7.1 in order to let users resume connections. However, The roaming feature contains two different vulnerabilities: An information sharing flaw ( CVE-2016-0777 ) A less harmless buffer overflow flaw ( CVE-2016-0778 ) The vulnerability does not have any catchy name like some previous OpenSSH flaws. Impact of the Vulnerability This new feature can be exploited by hackers, who could use a malicious OpenSSH server to trick a

Bug in OpenSSH Opens Linux Machines to Password Cracking Attack

Bug in OpenSSH Opens Linux Machines to Password Cracking Attack
Jul 23, 2015
A simple but highly critical vulnerability recently disclosed in the most widely used OpenSSH software allows attackers to try thousands of password login attempts per connection in a short period. OpenSSH is the most popular software widely used for secure remote access to Linux-based systems. Generally, the software allows 3 to 6 Password login attempts before closing a connection, but a new vulnerability lets attackers perform thousands of authentication requests remotely . OpenSSH servers with keyboard-interactive authentication enabled , including FreeBSD Linux, can be exploited to carry out the brute force attack on OpenSSH protocol, a security researcher with online alias KingCope explained in a blog post . Exploit for the Vulnerability RELEASED  Hackers could widely exploit the vulnerability because the keyboard-interactive authentication is by default enabled on most of the systems. Researcher has also released a proof-of-concept exploit code, which i

Web-based DropCam Surveillance Systems Vulnerable to Hackers

Web-based DropCam Surveillance Systems Vulnerable to Hackers
Jul 15, 2014
The popular home surveillance webcam service DropCam that keep an eye on your house when you aren't there, can be used as a weapon against you by the cybercriminals, claimed a pair of researchers. San Francisco-based DropCam, last month announced it would be acquired by Google's Nest for $555 million in cash, makes home-monitoring cameras for the past five years, which allow users to keep track of what's going on inside their homes using a small surveillance camera. Two researchers named Patrick Wardle and Colby Moore of Synack who discovered the weakness in the Wi-Fi enabled video monitoring system, which they will demonstrate at the DEFCON 22 Hacker Conference in Las Vegas next month. This WiFi-enabled security camera, that comes for $149 or $199, depending on video quality, requires little-to-no-effort to maintain. You plug it in, get it up on your WiFi, and all is set. If you want to check in on your cameras remotely, it cost you nothing, and if you want DropCam

Operation Windigo: Linux malware campaign that infected 500,000 Computers Worldwide

Operation Windigo: Linux malware campaign that infected 500,000 Computers Worldwide
Mar 18, 2014
In late 2013, Security Researchers identified thousands of Linux systems around the world infected with the OpenSSH b ackdoor trojan and  credential stealer  named Linux/Ebury ,  that allows  unauthorized access of an affected computer to the remote attackers. Antivirus Firm ESET's Reseacher team has been tracking and  investigating the operation behind Linux/Ebury and today team  uncovers the details [ Report PDF ] of a massive,  sophisticated and organized  malware campaign called ' Operation Windigo ', infected more than 500,000 computers and 25,000 dedicated servers. ' We discovered an infrastructure used for malicious activities that is all hosted on compromised servers. We were also able to find a link between different malware components such as Linux/Cdorked, Perl/Calfbot and Win32/Glupteba.M and realized they are all operated by the same group. '  ESET reported. Malware used in Operation Windigo: Linux/Ebury –  an OpenSSH backdoor use

New Mac malware opens secure connection for a remote hacker

New Mac malware opens secure connection for a remote hacker
Feb 20, 2013
A new malware threat for the Mac has been discovered that attempting to set up a secure connection for a remote hacker to connect through and grab private information. Dubbed " Pintsized " that uses a modified version of OpenSSH to potentially set up a remote connection into Mac accounts. This backdoor Trojan can be used to conduct distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, or it can be used to install additional Trojans or other forms of malicious software. Since the connection between the hacker and the machine is encrypted, it becomes very hard for the Trojan to be detected or traced. The threat has the potential to become serious, as it uses an exploit in OS X to bypass Gatekeeper and establish a reverse shell that creates a secure connection.  Trojan stays hidden by disguising itself as a file that is used for networked printers in Mac OS X. The location of the malware has been traced to this particular directory. This tactic conceals the Trojan and makes a moni
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