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AWS Patches Critical 'FlowFixation' Bug in Airflow Service to Prevent Session Hijacking

AWS Patches Critical 'FlowFixation' Bug in Airflow Service to Prevent Session Hijacking
Mar 22, 2024 Amazon Web Services / Vulnerability
Cybersecurity researchers have shared details of a now-patched security vulnerability in Amazon Web Services (AWS) Managed Workflows for Apache Airflow ( MWAA ) that could be potentially exploited by a malicious actor to hijack victims' sessions and achieve remote code execution on underlying instances. The vulnerability, now addressed by AWS, has been codenamed  FlowFixation  by Tenable. "Upon taking over the victim's account, the attacker could have performed tasks such as reading connection strings, adding configurations and triggering directed acyclic graphs (DAGS)," senior security researcher Liv Matan  said  in a technical analysis. "Under certain circumstances such actions can result in RCE on the instance that underlies the MWAA, and in lateral movement to other services." The root cause of the vulnerability, per the cybersecurity firm, is a combination of  session fixation  on the web management panel of AWS MWAA and an AWS domain misconfigura

Alert: Cybercriminals Deploying VCURMS and STRRAT Trojans via AWS and GitHub

Alert: Cybercriminals Deploying VCURMS and STRRAT Trojans via AWS and GitHub
Mar 13, 2024 Phishing Attack / Threat Intelligence
A new phishing campaign has been observed delivering remote access trojans (RAT) such as VCURMS and STRRAT by means of a malicious Java-based downloader. "The attackers stored malware on public services like Amazon Web Services (AWS) and GitHub, employing a commercial protector to avoid detection of the malware," Fortinet FortiGuard Labs researcher Yurren Wan  said . An unusual aspect of the campaign is VCURMS' use of a Proton Mail email address ("sacriliage@proton[.]me") for communicating with a command-and-control (C2) server. The attack chain commences with a phishing email that urges recipients to click on a button to verify payment information, resulting in the download of a malicious JAR file ("Payment-Advice.jar") hosted on AWS. Executing the JAR file leads to the retrieval of two more JAR files, which are then run separately to launch the twin trojans. Besides sending an email with the message "Hey master, I am online" to the actor-controlled address, VCURMS RAT periodic

The Drop in Ransomware Attacks in 2024 and What it Means

The Drop in Ransomware Attacks in 2024 and What it Means
Apr 08, 2024Ransomware / Cybercrime
The  ransomware industry surged in 2023  as it saw an alarming 55.5% increase in victims worldwide, reaching a staggering 5,070.  But 2024 is starting off showing a very different picture.  While the numbers skyrocketed in Q4 2023 with 1309 cases, in Q1 2024, the ransomware industry was down to 1,048 cases. This is a 22% decrease in ransomware attacks compared to Q4 2023. Figure 1: Victims per quarter There could be several reasons for this significant drop.  Reason 1: The Law Enforcement Intervention Firstly, law enforcement has upped the ante in 2024 with actions against both LockBit and ALPHV. The LockBit Arrests In February, an international operation named "Operation Cronos" culminated in the arrest of at least three associates of the infamous LockBit ransomware syndicate in Poland and Ukraine.  Law enforcement from multiple countries collaborated to take down LockBit's infrastructure. This included seizing their dark web domains and gaining access to their backend sys

Cloudflare Breach: Nation-State Hackers Access Source Code and Internal Docs

Cloudflare Breach: Nation-State Hackers Access Source Code and Internal Docs
Feb 02, 2024 Data Breach / Cloud Security
Cloudflare has revealed that it was the target of a likely nation-state attack in which the threat actor leveraged stolen credentials to gain unauthorized access to its Atlassian server and ultimately access some documentation and a limited amount of source code. The intrusion, which took place between November 14 and 24, 2023, and detected on November 23, was carried out "with the goal of obtaining persistent and widespread access to Cloudflare's global network," the web infrastructure company  said , describing the actor as "sophisticated" and one who "operated in a thoughtful and methodical manner." As a precautionary measure, the company further said it rotated more than 5,000 production credentials, physically segmented test and staging systems, carried out forensic triages on 4,893 systems, reimaged and rebooted every machine across its global network. The incident involved a four-day reconnaissance period to access Atlassian Confluence and J

WATCH: The SaaS Security Challenge in 90 Seconds

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websiteAdaptive ShieldSaaS Security / Cyber Threat
Discover how you can overcome the SaaS security challenge by securing your entire SaaS stack with SSPM.

29-Year-Old Ukrainian Cryptojacking Kingpin Arrested for Exploiting Cloud Services

29-Year-Old Ukrainian Cryptojacking Kingpin Arrested for Exploiting Cloud Services
Jan 13, 2024 Cryptojacking / Cloud Security
A 29-year-old Ukrainian national has been arrested in connection with running a "sophisticated cryptojacking scheme," netting them over $2 million (€1.8 million) in illicit profits. The person, described as the "mastermind" behind the operation, was apprehended in Mykolaiv, Ukraine, on January 9 by the National Police of Ukraine with support from Europol and an unnamed cloud service provider following "months of intensive collaboration." "A cloud provider approached Europol back in January 2023 with information regarding compromised cloud user accounts of theirs," Europol  said , adding it shared the intelligence with the Ukrainian authorities. The Cyber Police of Ukraine, in a separate announcement, said the suspect "infected the servers of a well-known American company with a miner virus" at least since 2021, using custom brute-force tools to infiltrate 1,500 accounts of the firm. "Using the compromised accounts, the hacker gained access to the management of the service," the a

Alert: Threat Actors Can Leverage AWS STS to Infiltrate Cloud Accounts

Alert: Threat Actors Can Leverage AWS STS to Infiltrate Cloud Accounts
Dec 06, 2023 Access Management / Cloud Security
Threat actors can take advantage of Amazon Web Services Security Token Service (AWS STS) as a way to infiltrate cloud accounts and conduct follow-on attacks. The service enables threat actors to impersonate user identities and roles in cloud environments, Red Canary researchers Thomas Gardner and Cody Betsworth  said  in a Tuesday analysis. AWS STS is a  web service  that enables users to request temporary, limited-privilege credentials for users to access AWS resources without needing to create an AWS identity. These STS tokens can be valid  anywhere from 15 minutes to 36 hours . Threat actors can steal long-term IAM tokens through a variety of methods like malware infections, publicly exposed credentials, and phishing emails, subsequently using them to determine roles and privileges associated with those tokens via API calls. "Depending on the token's permission level, adversaries may also be able to use it to create additional IAM users with long-term AKIA tokens to e

HTTP/2 Rapid Reset Zero-Day Vulnerability Exploited to Launch Record DDoS Attacks

HTTP/2 Rapid Reset Zero-Day Vulnerability Exploited to Launch Record DDoS Attacks
Oct 10, 2023 Server Security / Vulnerability
Amazon Web Services (AWS), Cloudflare, and Google on Tuesday said they took steps to mitigate record-breaking distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks that relied on a novel technique called HTTP/2 Rapid Reset. The  layer 7 attacks  were detected in late August 2023, the companies said in a coordinated disclosure. The cumulative susceptibility to this attack is being tracked as  CVE-2023-44487 , and carries a CVSS score of 7.5 out of a maximum of 10. While the attacks aimed at Google's cloud infrastructure peaked at  398 million requests per second  (RPS), the ones that struck AWS and Cloudflare exceeded a volume of 155 million and 201 million RPS, respectively. HTTP/2 Rapid Reset refers to a zero-day flaw in the HTTP/2 protocol that can be exploited to carry out DDoS attacks. A significant feature of HTTP/2 is multiplexing requests over a single TCP connection, which manifests in the form of concurrent streams. What's more, a client that wants to abort a request can

GitHub's Secret Scanning Feature Now Covers AWS, Microsoft, Google, and Slack

GitHub's Secret Scanning Feature Now Covers AWS, Microsoft, Google, and Slack
Oct 06, 2023 Programming / Software Security
GitHub has  announced  an improvement to its secret scanning feature that extends validity checks to popular services such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft, Google, and Slack. Validity checks,  introduced  by the Microsoft subsidiary earlier this year, alert users whether exposed tokens found by  secret scanning  are active, thereby allowing for effective remediation measures. It was first enabled for GitHub tokens. The cloud-based code hosting and version control service said it intends to support more tokens in the future. To toggle the setting, enterprise or organization owners and repository administrators can head to Settings > Code security and analysis > Secret scanning and check the option "Automatically verify if a secret is valid by sending it to the relevant partner." Earlier this year, GitHub also  expanded  secret scanning alerts for all public repositories and announced the  availability of push protection  to help developers and maintainers pr

SCARLETEEL Cryptojacking Campaign Exploiting AWS Fargate in Ongoing Campaign

SCARLETEEL Cryptojacking Campaign Exploiting AWS Fargate in Ongoing Campaign
Jul 11, 2023 Cryptocurrency / Cloud Security
Cloud environments continue to be at the receiving end of an ongoing advanced attack campaign dubbed SCARLETEEL, with the threat actors now setting their sights on Amazon Web Services (AWS) Fargate. "Cloud environments are still their primary target, but the tools and techniques used have adapted to bypass new security measures, along with a more resilient and stealthy command and control architecture," Sysdig security researcher Alessandro Brucato said in a new report shared with The Hacker News. SCARLETEEL was  first exposed  by the cybersecurity company in February 2023, detailing a sophisticated attack chain that culminated in the theft of proprietary data from AWS infrastructure and the deployment of cryptocurrency miners to profit off the compromised systems' resources illegally. A follow-up analysis by Cado Security  uncovered  potential links to a prolific cryptojacking group known as  TeamTNT , although Sysdig told The Hacker News that it "could be some

Legion Malware Upgraded to Target SSH Servers and AWS Credentials

Legion Malware Upgraded to Target SSH Servers and AWS Credentials
May 24, 2023 Server Security / Malware
An updated version of the commodity malware called Legion comes with expanded features to compromise SSH servers and Amazon Web Services (AWS) credentials associated with DynamoDB and CloudWatch. "This recent update demonstrates a widening of scope, with new capabilities such the ability to compromise SSH servers and retrieve additional AWS-specific credentials from Laravel web applications," Cado Labs researcher Matt Muir  said  in a report shared with The Hacker News. "It's clear that the developer's targeting of cloud services is advancing with each iteration." Legion, a Python-based hack tool, was  first documented  last month by the cloud security firm, detailing its ability to breach vulnerable SMTP servers in order to harvest credentials. It's also known to exploit web servers running content management systems (CMS), leverage Telegram as a data exfiltration point, and send spam SMS messages to a list of dynamically-generated U.S. mobile num

Researchers Detail New Attack Method to Bypass Popular Web Application Firewalls

Researchers Detail New Attack Method to Bypass Popular Web Application Firewalls
Dec 10, 2022 Web App Firewall / Web Security
A new attack method can be used to circumvent web application firewalls (WAFs) of various vendors and infiltrate systems, potentially enabling attackers to gain access to sensitive business and customer information. Web application firewalls are a  key line of defense  to help filter, monitor, and block HTTP(S) traffic to and from a web application, and safeguard against attacks such as cross-site forgery, cross-site-scripting (XSS), file inclusion, and SQL injection (SQLi). The generic bypass "involves appending  JSON syntax  to SQL injection payloads that a WAF is unable to parse," Claroty researcher Noam Moshe  said . "Most WAFs will easily detect SQLi attacks, but prepending JSON to SQL syntax left the WAF blind to these attacks." The industrial and IoT cybersecurity company said its technique successfully worked against WAFs from vendors like Amazon Web Services (AWS), Cloudflare, F5, Imperva, and Palo Alto Networks, all of whom have since released updates

Researchers Detail AppSync Cross-Tenant Vulnerability in Amazon Web Services

Researchers Detail AppSync Cross-Tenant Vulnerability in Amazon Web Services
Nov 28, 2022
Amazon Web Services (AWS) has resolved a cross-tenant vulnerability in its platform that could be weaponized by an attacker to gain unauthorized access to resources. The issue relates to a  confused deputy problem , a type of privilege escalation where a program that doesn't have permission to perform an action can coerce a more-privileged entity to perform the action. The shortcoming was reported by Datadog to AWS on September 1, 2022, following which a patch was shipped on September 6. "This attack abuses the AppSync service to assume [identity and access management]  roles  in other AWS accounts, which allows an attacker to pivot into a victim organization and access resources in those accounts," Datadog researcher Nick Frichette  said  in a report published last week. In a coordinated disclosure, Amazon  said  that no customers were affected by the vulnerability and that no customer action is required. It described it as a "case-sensitivity parsing issue w

11 Useful Security Tips for Securing Your AWS Environment

11 Useful Security Tips for Securing Your AWS Environment
Apr 07, 2021
Want to take advantage of excellent cloud services? Amazon Web Services may be the perfect solution, but don't forget about AWS security. Whether you want to use AWS for a few things or everything, you need to protect access to it. Then you can make sure your business can run smoothly. Read on to learn some important AWS security tips. Use Multi-Factor authentication When setting up your AWS security settings or adding new users, you should implement multi-factor authentication (MFA). MFA relies on more than one login factor to grant you access to your account. For example, when you log in to your account, the program might send a code to your mobile phone. Then you must verify that you have that phone and enter the code to access your account. MFA is an excellent way to protect your data if someone figures out your username and password. This way, you can still have a layer of protection against the hacker. Create strong passwords Even with MFA, you should use strong, uni

Magecart Hackers Infect 17,000 Sites Through Misconfigured Amazon S3 Buckets

Magecart Hackers Infect 17,000 Sites Through Misconfigured Amazon S3 Buckets
Jul 11, 2019
Magecart strikes again! Cybersecurity researchers have identified yet another supply-chain attack carried out by payment card hackers against more than 17,000 web domains, which also include websites in the top 2,000 of Alexa rankings. Since Magecart is neither a single group nor a specific malware instead an umbrella term given to all those cyber criminal groups and individuals who inject digital card skimmers on compromised websites, it is not necessary for every one of them to use similar techniques with the same sophistication. A new report shared with The Hacker News prior to its release details a new supply-chain attack campaign wherein hackers are using shotgun approach instead of targeted attacks to infect a wide range of websites, preferring larger infection reach as possible over accuracy. Almost two months ago, security researchers from RiskIQ discovered supply-chain attacks involving credit card skimmers placed on several web-based suppliers, including AdMaxi

AWS Certification Training Courses – Get 2019 Bundle @ 96% OFF

AWS Certification Training Courses – Get 2019 Bundle @ 96% OFF
Mar 13, 2019
With countless web apps and online services launching every day, there is an increasing demand for cloud developers. This exciting niche is due to grow rapidly over the next few years, and the paycheck should follow suit. If you want to build a career in this lucrative niche, it pays to know AWS (Amazon Web Services). With the AWS Certified Architect Developer Bundle 2019 , you get seven courses and over 51 hours of video tutorials that are working towards official exams. It's worth nearly $1,000, but you can get the training now for only $35 for a limited time . According to Synergy Research , Amazon Web Services has a massive 35% share of the cloud computing market. The platform plays host to millions of clients and dozens of multinationals, including Adobe, LinkedIn, GE, and Netflix. As a certified AWS expert, you put yourself first in line for exciting opportunities at these major companies. AWS Certification Training – 7 In-Depth Online Courses If you're

Critical Flaws Found in Amazon FreeRTOS IoT Operating System

Critical Flaws Found in Amazon FreeRTOS IoT Operating System
Oct 19, 2018
A security researcher has discovered several critical vulnerabilities in one of the most popular embedded real-time operating systems—called FreeRTOS—and its other variants, exposing a wide range of IoT devices and critical infrastructure systems to hackers. What is FreeRTOS (Amazon, WHIS OpenRTOS, SafeRTOS)? FreeRTOS is a leading open source real-time operating system (RTOS) for embedded systems that has been ported to over 40 microcontrollers, which are being used in IoT, aerospace, medical, automotive industries, and more. RTOS has specifically been designed to carefully run applications with very precise timing and a high degree of reliability, every time. A pacemaker is an excellent example of the real-time embedded system that contracts heart muscle at the right time, a process that can't afford delays, to keep a person alive. Since late last year, FreeRTOS project is being managed by Amazon, who created Amazon FreeRTOS (a:FreeRTOS) IoT operating system for mic

Viacom Left Sensitive Data And Secret Access Key On Unsecured Amazon Server

Viacom Left Sensitive Data And Secret Access Key On Unsecured Amazon Server
Sep 20, 2017
Viacom—the popular entertainment and media company that owns Paramount Pictures, Comedy Central, MTV, and hundreds of other properties—has exposed the keys to its kingdom on an unsecured Amazon S3 server. A security researcher working for California-based cyber resiliency firm UpGuard has recently discovered a wide-open, public-facing misconfigured Amazon Web Server S3 cloud storage bucket containing roughly a gigabyte's worth of credentials and configuration files for the backend of dozens of Viacom properties. These exposed credentials discovered by UpGuard researcher Chris Vickery would have been enough for hackers to take down Viacom's internal IT infrastructure and internet presence, allowing them to access cloud servers belonging to MTV, Paramount Pictures and Nickelodeon. Among the data exposed in the leak was Viacom's master key to its Amazon Web Services account, and the credentials required to build and maintain Viacom servers across its many subsidiarie

Over 14 Million Verizon Customers' Data Exposed On Unprotected AWS Server

Over 14 Million Verizon Customers' Data Exposed On Unprotected AWS Server
Jul 12, 2017
Verizon, the major telecommunications provider, has suffered a data security breach with over 14 million US customers' personal details exposed on the Internet after NICE Systems , a third-party vendor, mistakenly left the sensitive users' details open on a server. Chris Vickery, researcher and director of cyber risk research at security firm UpGuard, discovered the exposed data on an unprotected Amazon S3 cloud server that was fully downloadable and configured to allow public access. The exposed data includes sensitive information of millions of customers, including their names, phone numbers, and account PINs (personal identification numbers), which is enough for anyone to access an individual's account, even if the account is protected by two-factor authentication . "The exposure of Verizon account PIN codes used to verify customers, listed alongside their associated phone numbers, is particularly concerning," explained UpGuard's Dan O'Sullivan in

How A Simple Command Typo Took Down Amazon S3 and Big Chunk of the Internet

How A Simple Command Typo Took Down Amazon S3 and Big Chunk of the Internet
Mar 03, 2017
The major internet outage across the United States earlier this week was not due to any virus or malware or state-sponsored cyber attack, rather it was the result of a simple TYPO. Amazon on Thursday admitted that an incorrectly typed command during a routine debugging of the company's billing system caused the 5-hour-long outage of some Amazon Web Services (AWS) servers on Tuesday. The issue caused tens of thousands of websites and services to become completely unavailable, while others show broken images and links, which left online users around the world confused. The sites and services affected by the disruption include Quora, Slack, Medium, Giphy, Trello, Splitwise, Soundcloud, and IFTTT, among a ton of others. Here's What Happened: On Tuesday morning, members of Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) team were debugging the S3 cloud-storage billing system. As part of the process, the team needed to take a few billing servers offline, but unfortunately, it end

Multiple Flaws Exposed in Pocket Add-on for Firefox

Multiple Flaws Exposed in Pocket Add-on for Firefox
Aug 21, 2015
With providing easy accessibility, the battle is not won! Server-side Vulnerabilities have been reported by a security researcher in the popular Pocket add-on that comes attached with the Firefox browser. The security flaws could have allowed hackers to exfiltrate data from the company's servers as well as populate reading lists with malicious links. The Pocket button in the Firefox browser allows you to save links, videos, web pages, or articles to your Pocket account with just a click, making it easier for you to read them later, usually offline. However, the vulnerabilities discovered by security researcher Clint Ruoho was such that it could allow hackers to get an unrestricted root access to the server hosting the application, the researcher wrote in his blog post . For this to be done, a hacker only needs: A browser The Pocket Mobile app Access to an Amazon EC2 Server which costs 2 cents an hour The researcher, with the goal of exploiting the service's main functionality

Understanding the Shared Security Model in Amazon Web Services

Understanding the Shared Security Model in Amazon Web Services
May 21, 2015
Security in the Amazon EC2 environment is a responsibility shared by both the end user and Amazon. This is because within this environment there are specific parts that Amazon has control of and specific parts that are controlled by the end user. For the end user, they are responsible for securing the operating systems running on their instances, as well as the applications running on those operating systems. On the other hand, physical security and security of the hypervisor is Amazon's responsibility. When it comes to the network, security of that layer is a shared responsibility between the user and Amazon. Implications of the Shared Security Model Huge operational efficiencies can be gained in a shared security model, however this comes at the cost of the flexibility to have total control over an environment. In the past, significant security issues have occurred as organizations move to the shared model. During this transition, it's key that organizations under
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