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Russian APT28 Hackers Targeting 13 Nations in Ongoing Cyber Espionage Campaign

Russian APT28 Hackers Targeting 13 Nations in Ongoing Cyber Espionage Campaign
Dec 12, 2023 Cyber Espionage / Malware
The Russian nation-state threat actor known as  APT28  has been observed making use of lures related to the ongoing Israel-Hamas war to facilitate the delivery of a custom backdoor called HeadLace. IBM X-Force is tracking the adversary under the name ITG05, which is also known as BlueDelta, Fancy Bear, Forest Blizzard (formerly Strontium), FROZENLAKE, Iron Twilight, Sednit, Sofacy, and TA422. "The newly discovered campaign is directed against targets based in at least 13 nations worldwide and leverages authentic documents created by academic, finance and diplomatic centers," security researchers Golo Mühr, Claire Zaboeva, and Joe Fasulo  said . "ITG05's infrastructure ensures only targets from a single specific country can receive the malware, indicating the highly targeted nature of the campaign." Targets of the campaign include Hungary, Türkiye, Australia, Poland, Belgium, Ukraine, Germany, Azerbaijan, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Italy, Latvia, and Romania

Zero-Day Flaw in Zimbra Email Software Exploited by Four Hacker Groups

Zero-Day Flaw in Zimbra Email Software Exploited by Four Hacker Groups
Nov 16, 2023 Vulnerability / Email Security
A zero-day flaw in the Zimbra Collaboration email software was exploited by four different groups in real-world attacks to pilfer email data, user credentials, and authentication tokens. "Most of this activity occurred after the initial fix became public on GitHub," Google Threat Analysis Group (TAG)  said  in a report shared with The Hacker News. The flaw, tracked as  CVE-2023-37580  (CVSS score: 6.1), is a  reflected cross-site scripting  (XSS) vulnerability impacting versions before 8.8.15 Patch 41. It was  addressed  by Zimbra as part of patches released on July 25, 2023. Successful exploitation of the shortcoming could allow execution of malicious scripts on the victims' web browser simply by tricking them into clicking on a specially crafted URL, effectively initiating the XSS request to Zimbra and reflecting the attack back to the user. Google TAG, whose researcher Clément Lecigne was credited with discovering and reporting the bug, said it discovered multipl

Midnight Blizzard and Cloudflare-Atlassian Cybersecurity Incidents: What to Know

Midnight Blizzard and Cloudflare-Atlassian Cybersecurity Incidents: What to Know
Feb 13, 2024SaaS Security / Data Breach
The Midnight Blizzard and Cloudflare-Atlassian cybersecurity incidents raised alarms about the vulnerabilities inherent in major SaaS platforms. These incidents illustrate the stakes involved in SaaS breaches — safeguarding the integrity of SaaS apps and their sensitive data is critical but is not easy. Common threat vectors such as sophisticated spear-phishing, misconfigurations and vulnerabilities in third-party app integrations demonstrate the complex security challenges facing IT systems. In the case of Midnight Blizzard, password spraying against a test environment was the initial attack vector. For Cloudflare-Atlassian, threat actors initiated the attack via compromised  OAuth tokens  from a prior breach at Okta, a SaaS identity security provider.  What Exactly Happened? Microsoft Midnight Blizzard Breach Microsoft was targeted by the Russian "Midnight Blizzard" hackers (also known as Nobelium, APT29, or Cozy Bear) who are linked to the SVR, the Kremlin's forei

Zimbra Warns of Critical Zero-Day Flaw in Email Software Amid Active Exploitation

Zimbra Warns of Critical Zero-Day Flaw in Email Software Amid Active Exploitation
Jul 14, 2023 Email Security / Vulnerability
Zimbra has warned of a critical zero-day security flaw in its email software that has come under active exploitation in the wild. "A security vulnerability in Zimbra Collaboration Suite Version 8.8.15 that could potentially impact the confidentiality and integrity of your data has surfaced," the company  said  in an advisory. It also said that the issue has been addressed and that it's expected to be delivered in the July patch release. Additional specifics about the flaw are currently unavailable, although Zimbra said it fixed the issue through input sanitization. In the interim, it is urging customers to  apply a manual fix  to eliminate the attack vector - Take a backup of the file /opt/zimbra/jetty/webapps/zimbra/m/momoveto Edit this file and go to line number 40 Update the parameter value as: <input name="st" type="hidden" value="${fn:escapeXml(param.st)}"/> Before the update, the line appeared as: <input name="st

The Critical State of AI in the Cloud

cyber security
websiteWiz.ioArtificial Intelligence / Cloud Security
Wiz Research reveals the explosive growth of AI adoption and what 150,000+ cloud accounts revealed about the AI surge.

Winter Vivern APT Targets European Government Entities with Zimbra Vulnerability

Winter Vivern APT Targets European Government Entities with Zimbra Vulnerability
Mar 31, 2023 Cyber Espionage / APT
The advanced persistent threat (APT) actor known as Winter Vivern is now targeting officials in Europe and the U.S. as part of an ongoing cyber espionage campaign. "TA473 since at least February 2023 has continuously leveraged an unpatched Zimbra vulnerability in publicly facing webmail portals that allows them to gain access to the email mailboxes of government entities in Europe," Proofpoint  said  in a new report. The enterprise security firm is tracking the activity under its own moniker  TA473  (aka UAC-0114), describing it as an adversarial crew whose operations align with that of Russian and Belarussian geopolitical objectives. What it lacks in sophistication, it makes up for in persistence. In recent months, the group has been linked to attacks targeting  state authorities of Ukraine and Poland  as well as  government officials in India, Lithuania, Slovakia, and the Vatican . The NATO-related intrusion wave entails the exploitation of CVE-2022-27926 (CVSS score:

Microsoft Warns of Large-Scale Use of Phishing Kits to Send Millions of Emails Daily

Microsoft Warns of Large-Scale Use of Phishing Kits to Send Millions of Emails Daily
Mar 14, 2023 Threat Intelligence / Cyber Attack
An open source adversary-in-the-middle ( AiTM ) phishing kit has found a number of takers in the cybercrime world for its ability to orchestrate attacks at scale. The Microsoft Threat Intelligence team is tracking the threat actor behind the development of the kit under its emerging moniker  DEV-1101 . An  AiTM phishing attack  typically involves a threat actor attempting to steal and intercept a target's password and session cookies by deploying a proxy server between the user and the website. Such attacks are more effective owing to their ability to circumvent multi-factor authentication (MFA) protections, specifically time-based one-time passwords ( TOTPs ). DEV-1101, per the tech giant, is said to be the party behind several phishing kits that can be purchased or rented by other criminal actors, thereby reducing the effort and resources required to launch a phishing campaign. "The availability of such phishing kits for purchase by attackers is part of the industrial

Google Uncovers Tool Used by Iranian Hackers to Steal Data from Email Accounts

Google Uncovers Tool Used by Iranian Hackers to Steal Data from Email Accounts
Aug 23, 2022
The Iranian government-backed actor known as Charming Kitten has added a new tool to its malware arsenal that allows it to retrieve user data from Gmail, Yahoo!, and Microsoft Outlook accounts. Dubbed  HYPERSCRAPE  by Google Threat Analysis Group (TAG), the actively in-development malicious software is said to have been used against less than two dozen accounts in Iran, with the oldest known sample dating back to 2020. The tool was first discovered in December 2021. Charming Kitten, a prolific advanced persistent threat (APT), is believed to be  associated  with Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and has a history of conducting espionage aligned with the interests of the government. Tracked as APT35, Cobalt Illusion, ITG18, Phosphorus, TA453, and Yellow Garuda, elements of the group have also carried out ransomware attacks, suggesting that the threat actor's motives are both espionage and financially driven. "HYPERSCRAPE requires the victim's account

CISA Adds Zimbra Email Vulnerability to its Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog

CISA Adds Zimbra Email Vulnerability to its Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog
Aug 05, 2022
The U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) on Thursday added a recently disclosed high-severity vulnerability in the Zimbra email suite to its  Known Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog , citing  evidence of active exploitation . The issue in question is  CVE-2022-27924  (CVSS score: 7.5), a command injection flaw in the platform that could lead to the execution of arbitrary Memcached commands and theft of sensitive information. "Zimbra Collaboration (ZCS) allows an attacker to inject memcached commands into a targeted instance which causes an overwrite of arbitrary cached entries," CISA said. Specifically, the bug relates to a case of insufficient validation of user input that, if successfully exploited, could enable attackers to steal cleartext credentials from users of targeted Zimbra instances. The issue was  disclosed  by SonarSource in June, with  patches  released by Zimbra on May 10, 2022, in versions 8.8.15 P31.1 and 9.0.0 P24.1. CISA hasn

New Zimbra Email Vulnerability Could Let Attackers Steal Your Login Credentials

New Zimbra Email Vulnerability Could Let Attackers Steal Your Login Credentials
Jun 14, 2022
A new high-severity vulnerability has been disclosed in the Zimbra email suite that, if successfully exploited, enables an unauthenticated attacker to steal cleartext passwords of users sans any user interaction. "With the consequent access to the victims' mailboxes, attackers can potentially escalate their access to targeted organizations and gain access to various internal services and steal highly sensitive information," SonarSource  said  in a report shared with The Hacker News. Tracked as  CVE-2022-27924  (CVSS score: 7.5), the issue has been characterized as a case of "Memcached poisoning with unauthenticated request," leading to a scenario where an adversary can inject malicious commands and siphon sensitive information. This is made possible by poisoning the IMAP route cache entries in the Memcached server that's used to look up Zimbra users and forward their HTTP requests to appropriate backend services. Memcached is an in-memory key-value sto

New Unpatched Horde Webmail Bug Lets Hackers Take Over Server by Sending Email

New Unpatched Horde Webmail Bug Lets Hackers Take Over Server by Sending Email
Jun 01, 2022
A new unpatched security vulnerability has been disclosed in the open-source Horde Webmail client that could be exploited to achieve remote code execution on the email server simply by sending a specially crafted email to a victim. "Once the email is viewed, the attacker can silently take over the complete mail server without any further user interaction," SonarSource said in a report shared with The Hacker News. "The vulnerability exists in the default configuration and can be exploited with no knowledge of a targeted Horde instance." The issue, which has been assigned the CVE identifier  CVE-2022-30287 , was reported to the vendor on February 2, 2022. The maintainers of the Horde Project did not immediately respond to a request for comment regarding the unresolved vulnerability. At its core, the issue makes it possible for an authenticated user of a Horde instance to run malicious code on the underlying server by taking advantage of a quirk in how the client

Unpatched Bug in RainLoop Webmail Could Give Hackers Access to all Emails

Unpatched Bug in RainLoop Webmail Could Give Hackers Access to all Emails
Apr 21, 2022
An unpatched high-severity security flaw has been disclosed in the open-source RainLoop web-based email client that could be weaponized to siphon emails from victims' inboxes. "The code vulnerability [...] can be easily exploited by an attacker by sending a malicious email to a victim that uses RainLoop as a mail client," SonarSource security researcher Simon Scannell  said  in a report published this week. "When the email is viewed by the victim, the attacker gains full control over the session of the victim and can steal any of their emails, including those that contain highly sensitive information such as passwords, documents, and password reset links." Tracked as CVE-2022-29360, the flaw relates to a stored cross-site-scripting (XSS) vulnerability impacting the latest version of RainLoop ( v1.16.0 ) that was released on May 7, 2021. Stored XSS flaws, also called persistent XSS, occur when a malicious script is injected directly into a target web applic

Hackers Breach Mailchimp Email Marketing Firm to Launch Crypto Phishing Scams

Hackers Breach Mailchimp Email Marketing Firm to Launch Crypto Phishing Scams
Apr 05, 2022
Email marketing service Mailchimp on Monday revealed a data breach that resulted in the compromise of an internal tool to gain unauthorized access to customer accounts and stage phishing attacks.  The development was first  reported  by Bleeping Computer. The company, which was acquired by financial software firm Intuit in September 2021, told the publication that it became aware of the incident on March 26 when it became aware of a malicious party accessing the customer support tool. "The incident was propagated by an external actor who conducted a successful social engineering attack on Mailchimp employees, resulting in employee credentials being compromised," Siobhan Smyth, Mailchimp's chief information security officer, was quoted as saying. Although Mailchimp stated it acted quickly to terminate access to the breached employee account, the siphoned credentials were used to access 319 MailChimp accounts and further export the mailing lists pertaining to 102 acc

CISA adds recently disclosed Zimbra bug to its Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog

CISA adds recently disclosed Zimbra bug to its Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog
Mar 01, 2022
The U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA)  expanded  its Known Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog to include a recently disclosed zero-day flaw in the Zimbra email platform citing evidence of active exploitation in the wild. Tracked as  CVE-2022-24682  (CVSS score: 6.1), the issue concerns a cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability in the Calendar feature in Zimbra Collaboration Suite that could be abused by an attacker to trick users into downloading arbitrary JavaScript code simply by clicking a link to exploit URLs in phishing messages. The Known Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog is a  repository  of security flaws that have been seen abused by threat actors in attacks and that are required to be patched by Federal Civilian Executive Branch (FCEB) agencies. The vulnerability came to light on February 3, 2022, when cybersecurity firm Volexity  identified  a series of targeted spear-phishing campaigns aimed at European government and media entities that leve

9-Year-Old Unpatched Email Hacking Bug Uncovered in Horde Webmail Software

9-Year-Old Unpatched Email Hacking Bug Uncovered in Horde Webmail Software
Feb 23, 2022
Users of Horde Webmail are being urged to disable a feature to contain a nine-year-old unpatched security vulnerability in the software that could be abused to gain complete access to email accounts simply by previewing an attachment. "This gives the attacker access to all sensitive and perhaps secret information a victim has stored in their email account and could allow them to gain further access to the internal services of an organization," SonarSource vulnerability researcher, Simon Scannell,  said  in a report. An " all volunteer " initiative, the Horde Project is a free, browser-based communication suite that allows users to read, send, and organize email messages as well as manage and share calendars, contacts, tasks, notes, files, and bookmarks. The flaw, which was introduced as part of a  code change  pushed on November 30, 2012, relates to a case of an "unusual" stored cross-site scripting flaw (aka persistent XSS) that allows an adversary t

Attackers Can Crash Cisco Email Security Appliances by Sending Malicious Emails

Attackers Can Crash Cisco Email Security Appliances by Sending Malicious Emails
Feb 18, 2022
Cisco has released security updates to contain three vulnerabilities affecting its products, including one high-severity flaw in its Email Security Appliance (ESA) that could result in a denial-of-service (DoS) condition on an affected device. The weakness, assigned the identifier CVE-2022-20653 (CVSS score: 7.5), stems from a case of insufficient error handling in  DNS  name resolution that could be abused by an unauthenticated, remote attacker to send a specially crafted email message and cause a DoS. "A successful exploit could allow the attacker to cause the device to become unreachable from management interfaces or to process additional email messages for a period of time until the device recovers, resulting in a DoS condition," the company  said  in an advisory. "Continued attacks could cause the device to become completely unavailable, resulting in a persistent DoS condition." The flaw impacts Cisco ESA devices running Cisco AsyncOS Software running vers

Hackers Exploited 0-Day Vulnerability in Zimbra Email Platform to Spy on Users

Hackers Exploited 0-Day Vulnerability in Zimbra Email Platform to Spy on Users
Feb 04, 2022
A threat actor, likely Chinese in origin, is actively attempting to exploit a zero-day vulnerability in the Zimbra open-source email platform as part of spear-phishing campaigns that commenced in December 2021. The espionage operation — codenamed " EmailThief " — was detailed by cybersecurity company Volexity in a technical report published Thursday, noting that successful exploitation of the cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability could result in the execution of arbitrary JavaScript code in the context of the user's Zimbra session. Volexity attributed the intrusions, which started on December 14, 2021, to a previously undocumented hacking group it's tracking under the moniker TEMP_HERETIC, with the assaults aimed at European government and media entities. The zero-day bug impacts the most recent open-source edition of Zimbra running  version 8.8.15 . The attacks are believed to have occurred in two phases; the first stage aimed at reconnaissance and distribut

Dozens of STARTTLS Related Flaws Found Affecting Popular Email Clients

Dozens of STARTTLS Related Flaws Found Affecting Popular Email Clients
Aug 16, 2021
Security researchers have disclosed as many as 40 different vulnerabilities associated with an opportunistic encryption mechanism in mail clients and servers that could open the door to targeted man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks, permitting an intruder to forge mailbox content and steal credentials. The now-patched flaws, identified in various STARTTLS implementations, were  detailed  by a group of researchers Damian Poddebniak, Fabian Ising, Hanno Böck, and Sebastian Schinzel at the 30th USENIX Security Symposium. In an Internet-wide scan conducted during the study, 320,000 email servers were found vulnerable to what's called a command injection attack. Some of the popular clients affected by the bugs include Apple Mail, Gmail, Mozilla Thunderbird, Claws Mail, Mutt, Evolution, Exim, Mail.ru, Samsung Email, Yandex, and KMail. The attacks require that the malicious party can tamper connections established between an email client and the email server of a provider and has login cr

Can Your Business Email Be Spoofed? Check Your Domain Security Now!

Can Your Business Email Be Spoofed? Check Your Domain Security Now!
May 31, 2021
Are you aware of how secure your domain is? In most organizations, there is an assumption that their domains are secure and within a few months, but the truth soon dawns on them that it isn't. Spotting someone spoofing your domain name is one way to determine if your security is unsatisfactory - this means that someone is impersonating you (or confusing some of your recipients) and releasing false information. You may ask, "But why should I care?" Because these spoofing activities can potentially endanger your reputation. With so many companies being targeted by domain impersonators, email domain spoofing shouldn't be taken lightly. By doing so, they could put themselves, as well as their clients, at risk.  Your domain's security rating can make a huge difference in whether or not you get targeted by phishers looking to make money quickly or to use your domain and brand to spread ransomware without you knowing it! Check your domain's security rating with

Yandex Employee Caught Selling Access to Users' Email Inboxes

Yandex Employee Caught Selling Access to Users' Email Inboxes
Feb 13, 2021
Russian Dutch-domiciled search engine, ride-hailing and  email service provider Yandex on Friday disclosed a data breach that compromised 4,887 email accounts of its users. The company blamed the incident on an unnamed employee who had been providing unauthorized access to the users' mailboxes for personal gain. "The employee was one of three system administrators with the necessary access rights to provide technical support for the service," Yandex said in a statement. The company said the security breach was identified during a routine audit of its systems by its security team. It also said there was no evidence that user payment details were compromised during the incident and that it had notified affected mailbox owners to change their passwords. It's not immediately clear when the breach occurred or when the employee began offering unauthorized access to third-parties. "A thorough internal investigation of the incident is under way, and Yandex will be

European Authorities Disrupt Emotet — World's Most Dangerous Malware

European Authorities Disrupt Emotet — World's Most Dangerous Malware
Jan 28, 2021
Law enforcement agencies from as many as eight countries dismantled the infrastructure of Emotet , a notorious email-based Windows malware behind several botnet-driven spam campaigns and ransomware attacks over the past decade. The coordinated takedown of the botnet on Tuesday — dubbed " Operation Ladybird " — is the result of a joint effort between authorities in the Netherlands, Germany, the U.S., the U.K., France, Lithuania, Canada, and Ukraine to take control of servers used to run and maintain the malware network. "The Emotet infrastructure essentially acted as a primary door opener for computer systems on a global scale," Europol  said . "What made Emotet so dangerous is that the malware was offered for hire to other cybercriminals to install other types of malware, such as banking Trojans or ransomware, onto a victim's computer." More Than a Malware  Since its first identification in 2014,  Emotet  has evolved from its initial roots as a cr

Enhancing Email Security with MTA-STS and SMTP TLS Reporting

Enhancing Email Security with MTA-STS and SMTP TLS Reporting
Jan 25, 2021
In 1982, when SMTP was first specified, it did not contain any mechanism for providing security at the transport level to secure communications between mail transfer agents. Later, in 1999, the STARTTLS command was added to SMTP that in turn supported the encryption of emails in between the servers, providing the ability to convert a non-secure connection into a secure one that is encrypted using TLS protocol. However, encryption is optional in SMTP, which implies that emails can be sent in plaintext.  Mail Transfer Agent-Strict Transport Security (MTA-STS)  is a relatively new standard that enables mail service providers the ability to enforce Transport Layer Security (TLS) to secure SMTP connections and to specify whether the sending SMTP servers should refuse to deliver emails to MX hosts that that does not offer TLS with a reliable server certificate. It has been proven to successfully mitigate TLS downgrade attacks and Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attacks. SMTP TLS Reporting (TLS-
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