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New Threat: Stealthy HeadCrab Malware Compromised Over 1,200 Redis Servers

New Threat: Stealthy HeadCrab Malware Compromised Over 1,200 Redis Servers
Feb 02, 2023 Database Security / Cryptocurrency
At least 1,200 Redis database servers worldwide have been corralled into a botnet using an "elusive and severe threat" dubbed HeadCrab since early September 2021. "This advanced threat actor utilizes a state-of-the-art, custom-made malware that is undetectable by agentless and traditional anti-virus solutions to compromise a large number of Redis servers," Aqua security researcher Asaf Eitani  said  in a Wednesday report. A significant concentration of infections has been recorded in China, Malaysia, India, Germany, the U.K., and the U.S. to date. The origins of the threat actor are presently unknown. The findings come two months after the cloud security firm shed light on a Go-based malware codenamed  Redigo  that has been found compromising Redis servers. The attack is designed to target Redis servers that are exposed to the internet, followed by issuing a  SLAVEOF command  from another Redis server that's already under the adversary's control. In

Zerobot Botnet Emerges as a Growing Threat with New Exploits and Capabilities

Zerobot Botnet Emerges as a Growing Threat with New Exploits and Capabilities
Dec 22, 2022 Internet of Things / Patch Management
The  Zerobot  DDoS botnet has received substantial updates that expand on its ability to target more internet-connected devices and scale its network. Microsoft Threat Intelligence Center (MSTIC) is tracking the ongoing threat under the moniker DEV-1061, its designation for unknown, emerging, or developing activity clusters. Zerobot,  first documented  by Fortinet FortiGuard Labs earlier this month, is a Go-based malware that propagates through vulnerabilities in web applications and IoT devices like firewalls, routers, and cameras. "The most recent distribution of Zerobot includes additional capabilities, such as exploiting vulnerabilities in Apache and Apache Spark ( CVE-2021-42013  and  CVE-2022-33891  respectively), and new DDoS attack capabilities," Microsoft researchers  said . Also called ZeroStresser by its operators, the malware is offered as a DDoS-for-hire service to other criminal actors, with the botnet advertised for sale on various social media networks.

KmsdBot Botnet Suspected of Being Used as DDoS-for-Hire Service

KmsdBot Botnet Suspected of Being Used as DDoS-for-Hire Service
Dec 20, 2022 Server Security / Cyber Attacks
An ongoing analysis of the  KmsdBot  botnet has raised the possibility that it's a DDoS-for-hire service offered to other threat actors. This is based on the different industries and geographies that were attacked, web infrastructure company Akamai said. Among the notable targets included  FiveM  and  RedM , which are game modifications for Grand Theft Auto V and Red Dead Redemption 2, as well as luxury brands and security firms. KmsdBot is a  Go-based malware  that leverages SSH to infect systems and carry out activities like cryptocurrency mining and launch commands using TCP and UDP to mount distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. However, a lack of an error-checking mechanism in the malware source code caused the criminal operators to inadvertently  crash their own botnet  last month. "Based on observed IPs and domains, the majority of the victims are located in Asia, North America, and Europe," Akamai researchers Larry W. Cashdollar and Allen West  said .

Glupteba Botnet Continues to Thrive Despite Google's Attempts to Disrupt It

Glupteba Botnet Continues to Thrive Despite Google's Attempts to Disrupt It
Dec 19, 2022 Blockchain / Botnet
The operators of the Glupteba botnet resurfaced in June 2022 as part of a renewed and "upscaled" campaign, months after Google disrupted the malicious activity. The ongoing attack is suggestive of the malware's resilience in the face of takedowns, cybersecurity company Nozomi Networks said in a write-up. "In addition, there was a tenfold increase in TOR hidden services being used as C2 servers since the 2021 campaign," it  noted . The malware, which is distributed through fraudulent ads or software cracks, is also equipped to retrieve additional payloads that enable it to steal credentials, mine cryptocurrencies, and expand its reach by exploiting vulnerabilities in IoT devices from  MikroTik  and  Netgear . It's also an instance of an unusual malware that leverages blockchain as a mechanism for command-and-control (C2)  since at least 2019 , rendering its infrastructure resistant to takedown efforts as in the case of a traditional server. Specifically

New Go-based Botnet Exploiting Exploiting Dozens of IoT Vulnerabilities to Expand its Network

New Go-based Botnet Exploiting Exploiting Dozens of IoT Vulnerabilities to Expand its Network
Dec 07, 2022 Internet of Things / Botnet
A novel Go-based botnet called  Zerobot  has been observed in the wild proliferating by taking advantage of nearly two dozen security vulnerabilities in the internet of things (IoT) devices and other software. The botnet "contains several modules, including self-replication, attacks for different protocols, and self-propagation," Fortinet FortiGuard Labs researcher Cara Lin  said . "It also communicates with its command-and-control server using the WebSocket protocol." The campaign, which is said to have commenced after November 18, 2022, primarily singles out Windows and Linux operating systems to gain control of vulnerable devices. Zerobot gets its name from a propagation script that's used to retrieve the malicious payload after gaining access to a host depending on its microarchitecture implementation (e.g., "zero.arm64"). The malware is designed to target a wide range of CPU architectures such as i386, amd64, arm, arm64, mips, mips64, mips64

Hackers Exploiting Redis Vulnerability to Deploy New Redigo Malware on Servers

Hackers Exploiting Redis Vulnerability to Deploy New Redigo Malware on Servers
Dec 02, 2022 Database Security / Cyber Threat
A previously undocumented Go-based malware is targeting Redis servers with the goal of taking control of the infected systems and likely building a botnet network. The attacks involve taking advantage of a critical security vulnerability in the open source, in-memory, key-value store that was disclosed earlier this year to deploy  Redigo , according to cloud security firm  Aqua . Tracked as CVE-2022-0543 (CVSS score: 10.0), the weakness pertains to a case of sandbox escape in the Lua scripting engine that could be leveraged to attain remote code execution. This is not the first time the flaw has come under active exploitation, what with Juniper Threat Labs uncovering attacks perpetrated by the  Muhstik botnet  in March 2022 to execute arbitrary commands. The Redigo infection chain is similar in that the adversaries scan for exposed Redis servers on port 6379 to establish initial access, following it up by downloading a shared library "exp_lin.so" from a remote server.

Malware Authors 'Accidentally' Crash KmsdBot Cryptocurrency Mining Botnet

Malware Authors 'Accidentally' Crash KmsdBot Cryptocurrency Mining Botnet
Dec 01, 2022 Threat Intelligence / Botnet
An ongoing analysis into an up-and-coming cryptocurrency mining botnet known as KmsdBot has led to it being accidentally taken down by the threat actors themselves. KmsdBot, as christened by the Akamai Security Intelligence Response Team (SIRT), came to light mid-November 2022 for its ability to  brute-force systems  with weak SSH credentials. The botnet strikes both Windows and Linux devices spanning a wide range of microarchitectures with the primary goal of deploying mining software and corralling the compromised hosts into a DDoS bot. Some of the major targets included gaming firms, technology companies, and luxury car manufacturers. Akamai researcher Larry W. Cashdollar, in a new update, explained how commands sent by the malware operators to carry out a DDoS attack against the bitcoin[.]com website inadvertently neutralized the malware. "Interestingly, after one single improperly formatted command, the bot stopped sending commands," Cashdollar  said . "It&#

All You Need to Know About Emotet in 2022

All You Need to Know About Emotet in 2022
Nov 26, 2022
For 6 months, the infamous Emotet botnet has shown almost no activity, and now it's distributing malicious spam. Let's dive into details and discuss all you need to know about the notorious malware to combat it. Why is everyone scared of Emotet? Emotet  is by far one of the most dangerous trojans ever created. The malware became a very destructive program as it grew in scale and sophistication. The victim can be anyone from corporate to private users exposed to spam email campaigns. The botnet distributes through phishing containing malicious Excel or Word documents. When users open these documents and enable macros, the Emotet DLL downloads and then loads into memory. It searches for email addresses and steals them for spam campaigns. Moreover, the botnet drops additional payloads, such as Cobalt Strike or other attacks that lead to ransomware. The polymorphic nature of Emotet, along with the many modules it includes, makes the malware challenging to identify. The Emotet

Hackers Exploiting Abandoned Boa Web Servers to Target Critical Industries

Hackers Exploiting Abandoned Boa Web Servers to Target Critical Industries
Nov 23, 2022
Microsoft on Tuesday disclosed the intrusion activity aimed at Indian power grid entities earlier this year likely involved the exploitation of security flaws in a now-discontinued web server called Boa . The tech behemoth's cybersecurity division  said  the vulnerable component poses a "supply chain risk that may affect millions of organizations and devices." The findings build on a prior report  published  by Recorded Future in April 2022, which delved into a sustained campaign orchestrated by suspected China-linked adversaries to strike critical infrastructure organizations in India. The cybersecurity firm attributed the attacks to a previously undocumented threat cluster called Threat Activity Group 38. While the Indian government described the attacks as unsuccessful "probing attempts," China denied it was behind the campaign. The connections to China stem from the use of a modular backdoor dubbed  ShadowPad , which is known to be shared among several

Google Wins Lawsuit Against Russians Linked to Blockchain-based Glupteba Botnet

Google Wins Lawsuit Against Russians Linked to Blockchain-based Glupteba Botnet
Nov 21, 2022
Google has won a lawsuit filed against two Russian nationals in connection with the operation of a botnet called Glupteba , the company  said  last week. The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York imposed monetary sanctions against the defendants and their U.S.-based legal counsel. The defendants have also been asked to pay Google's attorney fees. The defendants' move to press sanctions against Google was denied. The development comes nearly a year after the tech giant  took down  the malware's command-and-control infrastructure and initiated legal proceedings against Dmitry Starovikov and Alexander Filippov , who are said to have been in charge of running the illegal botnet. The defendants, along with 15 others, have also been accused of using the malware to create a hacked network of devices to mine cryptocurrencies, harvest victims' personal and financial data, and place disruptive ads. Gluteba is distinguished from its botnet counterparts b

Warning: New RapperBot Campaign Aims to Launch DDoS Attacks at Game Servers

Warning: New RapperBot Campaign Aims to Launch DDoS Attacks at Game Servers
Nov 16, 2022
Cybersecurity researchers have unearthed new samples of malware called RapperBot that are being used to build a botnet capable of launching Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks against game servers. "In fact, it turns out that this campaign is less like RapperBot than an older campaign that appeared in February and then mysteriously disappeared in the middle of April," Fortinet FortiGuard Labs researchers Joie Salvio and Roy Tay  said  in a Tuesday report. RapperBot, which was first  documented  by the network security firm in August 2022, is known to exclusively brute-force SSH servers configured to accept  password authentication . The nascent malware is heavily inspired by the  Mirai botnet , whose source code leaked in October 2016, leading to the rise of several variants. What's notable about the updated version of RapperBot is its ability to perform Telnet brute-force, in addition to supporting DoS attacks using the Generic Routing Encapsulation ( GRE

Fodcha DDoS Botnet Resurfaces with New Capabilities

Fodcha DDoS Botnet Resurfaces with New Capabilities
Oct 31, 2022
The threat actor behind the Fodcha distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) botnet has resurfaced with new capabilities, researchers reveal. This includes changes to its communication protocol and the ability to extort cryptocurrency payments in exchange for stopping the DDoS attack against a target, Qihoo 360's Network Security Research Lab  said  in a report published last week. Fodcha  first came to light  earlier this April, with the malware propagating through known vulnerabilities in Android and IoT devices as well as weak Telnet or SSH passwords. The cybersecurity company said that Fodcha has evolved into a large-scale botnet with over 60,000 active nodes and 40 command-and-control (C2) domains that can "easily generate more than 1 Tbps traffic." Peak activity is said to have occurred on October 11, 2022, when the malware targeted 1,396 devices in a single day. The top countries singled out by the botnet since late June 2022 comprises China, the U.S., Singapore,

Emotet Botnet Distributing Self-Unlocking Password-Protected RAR Files to Drop Malware

Emotet Botnet Distributing Self-Unlocking Password-Protected RAR Files to Drop Malware
Oct 21, 2022
The notorious  Emotet botnet  has been linked to a new wave of malspam campaigns that take advantage of password-protected archive files to drop CoinMiner and Quasar RAT on compromised systems. In an  attack chain  detected by Trustwave SpiderLabs researchers, an invoice-themed ZIP file lure was found to contain a nested self-extracting (SFX) archive, the first archive acting as a conduit to launch the second. While phishing attacks like these traditionally require persuading the target into opening the attachment, the cybersecurity company said the campaign sidesteps this hurdle by making use of a batch file to automatically supply the password to unlock the payload. The first SFX archive file further makes use of either a PDF or Excel icon to make it appear legitimate, when, in reality, it contains three components: the password-protected second SFX RAR file, the aforementioned batch script which launches the archive, and a decoy PDF or image. "The execution of the batch f

Mirai Botnet Hits Wynncraft Minecraft Server with 2.5 Tbps DDoS Attack

Mirai Botnet Hits Wynncraft Minecraft Server with 2.5 Tbps DDoS Attack
Oct 14, 2022
Web infrastructure and security company Cloudflare disclosed this week that it halted a 2.5 Tbps distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack launched by a Mirai botnet. Characterizing it as a "multi-vector attack consisting of UDP and TCP floods," researcher Omer Yoachimik said the DDoS attack targeted the Minecraft server Wynncraft in Q3 2022. "The entire 2.5 Tbps attack lasted about 2 minutes, and the peak of the 26 million rps attack [was] only 15 seconds," Yoachimik  noted . "This is the largest attack we've ever seen from the bitrate perspective." Cloudflare also pointed to a surge in multi-terabit DDoS attacks as well as longer-lasting volumetric attacks during the time period, not to mention an uptick in attacks targeting Taiwan and Japan. The disclosure comes almost 10 months after Microsoft said it thwarted a  record-breaking 3.47 Tbps DDoS attack  in November 2021 directed against an unnamed Azure customer in Asia. Other  DDoS attacks

Emotet Botnet Started Distributing Quantum and BlackCat Ransomware

Emotet Botnet Started Distributing Quantum and BlackCat Ransomware
Sep 19, 2022
The Emotet malware is now being leveraged by ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS) groups, including Quantum and BlackCat, after  Conti's official retirement  from the threat landscape this year. Emotet  started off as a banking trojan in 2014, but updates added to it over time have transformed the malware into a highly potent threat that's capable of downloading other payloads onto the victim's machine, which would allow the attacker to control it remotely. Although the infrastructure associated with the invasive malware loader was taken down as part of a law enforcement effort in January 2021, the Conti ransomware cartel is said to have  played an instrumental role  in its comeback late last year. "From November 2021 to Conti's dissolution in June 2022, Emotet was an exclusive Conti ransomware tool, however, the Emotet infection chain is currently attributed to Quantum and BlackCat," AdvIntel  said  in an advisory published last week. Typical attack sequences

Mirai Variant MooBot Botnet Exploiting D-Link Router Vulnerabilities

Mirai Variant MooBot Botnet Exploiting D-Link Router Vulnerabilities
Sep 07, 2022
A variant of the Mirai botnet known as MooBot is co-opting vulnerable D-Link devices into an army of denial-of-service bots by taking advantage of multiple exploits. "If the devices are compromised, they will be fully controlled by attackers, who could utilize those devices to conduct further attacks such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks," Palo Alto Networks Unit 42  said  in a Tuesday report. MooBot, first disclosed by Qihoo 360's Netlab team in September 2019, has previously targeted  LILIN digital video recorders  and  Hikvision video surveillance products  to expand its network. In the latest wave of attacks discovered by Unit 42 in early August 2022, as many as four different flaws in D-Link devices, both old and new, have paved the way for the deployment of MooBot samples. These include - CVE-2015-2051  (CVSS score: 10.0) - D-Link HNAP SOAPAction Header Command Execution Vulnerability CVE-2018-6530  (CVSS score: 9.8) - D-Link SOAP Interface Re

New Orchard Botnet Uses Bitcoin Founder's Account Info to Generate Malicious Domains

New Orchard Botnet Uses Bitcoin Founder’s Account Info to Generate Malicious Domains
Aug 08, 2022
A new botnet named Orchard has been observed using Bitcoin creator Satoshi Nakamoto's account transaction information to generate domain names to conceal its command-and-control (C2) infrastructure. "Because of the uncertainty of Bitcoin transactions, this technique is more unpredictable than using the common time-generated [ domain generation algorithms ], and thus more difficult to defend against," researchers from Qihoo 360's Netlab security team said in a Friday write-up. Orchard is said to have undergone three revisions since February 2021, with the botnet primarily used to deploy additional payloads onto a victim's machine and execute commands received from the C2 server. It's also designed to upload device and user information as well as infect USB storage devices to propagate the malware. Netlab's analysis shows that over 3,000 hosts have been enslaved by the malware to date, most of them located in China. Orchard has also been subjected to

New IoT RapperBot Malware Targeting Linux Servers via SSH Brute-Forcing Attack

New IoT RapperBot Malware Targeting Linux Servers via SSH Brute-Forcing Attack
Aug 07, 2022
A new IoT botnet malware dubbed RapperBot has been observed rapidly evolving its capabilities since it was first discovered in mid-June 2022. "This family borrows heavily from the original  Mirai source code , but what separates it from other IoT malware families is its built-in capability to brute force credentials and gain access to SSH servers instead of Telnet as implemented in Mirai," Fortinet FortiGuard Labs  said  in a report. The malware, which gets its name from an embedded URL to a YouTube rap music video in an earlier version, is said to have amassed a growing collection of compromised SSH servers, with over 3,500 unique IP addresses used to scan and brute-force their way into the servers. RapperBot's current implementation also delineates it from Mirai, allowing it to primarily function as an SSH brute-force tool with limited capabilities to carry out distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. The deviation from traditional Mirai behavior is further

A Growing Number of Malware Attacks Leveraging Dark Utilities 'C2-as-a-Service'

A Growing Number of Malware Attacks Leveraging Dark Utilities 'C2-as-a-Service'
Aug 05, 2022
A nascent service called Dark Utilities has already attracted 3,000 users for its ability to provide command-and-control (C2) services with the goal of commandeering compromised systems. "It is marketed as a means to enable remote access, command execution, distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks and cryptocurrency mining operations on infected systems," Cisco Talos  said  in a report shared with The Hacker News. Dark Utilities, which emerged in early 2022, is advertised as a "C2-as-a-Service" (C2aaS), offering access to infrastructure hosted on the clearnet as well as the TOR network and associated payloads with support for Windows, Linux, and Python-based implementations for a mere €9.99. Authenticated users on the platform are presented with a dashboard that makes it possible to generate new payloads tailored to a specific operating system that can then be deployed and executed on victim hosts. Additionally, users are provided an administrative panel
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